Cross Currents: Chapter 3

This chapter includes primers and other introductions to Jung's psychology as well surveys of basic postulates of "Jungian" psychology, along with some books that characterize Jung in relationship to the ideas of Freud and others.

Cross-Currents of Jungian Psychology

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3      Jung's Psychology

This chapter includes primers and other introductions to Jung's psychology as well surveys of basic postulates of "Jungian" psychology, along with some books that characterize Jung in relationship to the ideas of Freud and others. Of the nearly twenty "textbooks" on the psychology of Jung in this section, the most comprehensive are those written by Whitmont (1969) and Mattoon (1981).

The books are arranged chronologically within the twofold framework of books written by Jung followed by those written by others, in order to provide a perspective on the historical development of the writings.


Analytical Psychology: Notes of the Seminar Given in 1925 by C. G. Jung, edited by William McGuire. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press (Bollingen Series XCIX), 1989 (179 + xx, incl. 5-p. general index, 4-p. indexes, 11 illus., 10-p. editor's intro.).

Containing sixteen untitled lectures given weekly during 1925 as the first of Jung's formal seminars in English and consisting of considerable interaction with the group, this book begins with Jung's personal account of the progression of his ideas from 1896 to his break with Freud. He then discusses the basic ideas of analytical psychology, including the collective unconscious, archetypes, typology, and the anima/animus theory, which are illustrated by diagrams and dreams. Appended are seminar discussions on psychological aspects of the novels She (Rider Haggard), Evil Vineyard (Marie Hay), and L'Atlantide (René Benoit).


Two Essays on Analytical Psychology, by C. G. Jung. (Get.: Der Unbewusste im normalen und kranken Seelenleben. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1926; Die Beziehungen zwischen dem Ich und dem Unbewussten. Darmstadt: Reichl Verlag, 1928.) London: Balliere, Tindall & Cox, 1928; New York: Dodd, Mead, 1928; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1953; Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1953; New York: Pantheon Books, Bollingen Foundation, 1953; New York: Meridian/New American Library, 1956p; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, ed.2 1966; 1972p (CW 7) (349 + xi: 35-p. index, 6-p. bibl.).

Brought together in 1928 as the foundation upon which much of Jung's later work was built, these two essays state the fundamentals of Jung's psychological system. He himself described it as being no easy task to try to popularize highly complicated material still in the process of scientific development. The first, "On the Psychology of the Unconscious," is devoted to the history of Freudian and Adlerian theories, the problem of the fundamental attitude-types of extraversion and introversion, the personal as well as the collective (or transpersonal) unconscious, the archetypes of the collective unconscious, and the therapeutic approach to the unconscious. The second, "The Relation between the Ego and the Unconscious," is concerned with the effects of the unconscious upon consciousness and the role of the persona, and with the way of individuation, the anima and animus, and the technique of differentiation between the ego and figures of the unconscious.


Analytical Psychology: Its Theory and Practice, by C. G. Jung. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1968; 1976 p; New York: Pantheon Books/Random House, 1968; New York: Vintage Books/Random House, 1970p; New York: J. Aronson, repr. 1974; London: Ark Publications, 1986p (The Tavistock Lectures) (225 + xvi, incl. 10-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 15 illus., 4-p. Foreword by Bennet).

Five untitled lectures (under the general theme of analytical psychology) with ensuing discussions were given by Jung for the Institute of Medical Psychology at Tavistock Clinic in London in 1935 to approximately 200 doctors. He presents his own researches on the structure and content of the mind and on methods used in its investigation, as well as relationships between unconscious mental activity and the word- association test, dream analysis and active imagination, and a short survey of the transference phenomenon. Jung's personality is evident in the informal yet systematic talks.


General Bibliography of C. G. Jung's Writings, compiled by Lisa Ress et al. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1979; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979 (CW 19) (263 + x, incl. 23-p. title index, 7-p. personal name index, 4-p. index of congresses, etc., 6-p. index of periodicals, 9-p. list of the Collected Works).

This bibliography consists of a record (through 1975) of each original work written by Jung, as well as each translated and/or subsequently revised edition. It includes all books and articles written by Jung (including collaborations with others), forewords written for other authors' books, newspaper articles, book reviews, and published texts of lectures. Works written in German, English, and French, and those translated into English, French, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Norwegian, Portuguese, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish, and Turkish are listed.


The Psychology of Jung, by James Oppenheim. Girard, Kans.: Haldeman-Julius Publ., 1925p (Little Blue Book, no. 978) (64, ind. 3-p. advertising of Little Blue Book Series).

Claiming Jung's psychology as "the psychology of the future," Oppenheim first presents in this pocket book a summary of the work of Freud and Adler. Then he describes Jung's theories, which "go beyond both." Writing soon after the publication of Jung's Psychological Types, Oppenheim describes the classification of types and the significance of the terms introvert and extravert.


A B C of Jung's Psychology, by Joan Corrie. London: Kegan Paul, Trench,Trubner, 1927; New York: Frank-Maurice, 1927 p (85 pp.).

Having been a pupil of Jung's for some years and distressed by the misunderstanding and ignorance of his work, Corrie offers a short and simple outline of Jung's principal theories. She discusses the mind and its structure, functions, and disturbances, and the significance of dreams.


Secret Ways of the Mind: A Survey of the Psychological Principles of Freud, Adler, and Jung, by Wolfgang Miltler Kranefeldt. (Ger.: Die Psychoanalyse, Psychoanalytische Psychologie. Berlin: Gruyter, 1930.) New York: Henry Holt, 1932; London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1934 (188 + xl, incl. 6p. index, 16-p. intro. by Jung).

Introducing his theme by describing early studies of double personality and of the trauma hypothesis, Kranefeldt then focuses on the theories involved in Freud's psychoanalysis, Adler's individual psychology, and Jung's analytical psychology. In the long introduction, Jung characterizes his psychology as being different from the other two in the sense of being dualistic and possibly pluralistic, because it is based on the principle of opposites and recognizes a multiplicity of relatively autonomous psychic complexes.


The Psychology of C. G. Jung: An Introduction with Illustrations, by Jolande Jacobi. (Ger.: Die Psychologie von C. G. Jung. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1940.) London: Kegan Paul, Trench,Trubner, 1942 to ed.6 1962; Routledge & Kegan Paul, ed. 7 1969 + p ; New Haven, Conn.:Yale U. Press, 1943 to ed.8 1973 +p (203 + xiii, incl. 11-p. index, 34-p. bibl., 3-p. biographical sketch of Jung, 30 illus., 1-p. foreword by Jung).

Published two years after Jacobi left Vienna to study with Jung, her synthesis of Jung's psychology grew out of lectures presented to groups of psychologists, physicians, and teachers. Its concise yet overall view of Jung's findings is designed to "open up access to Jung's extraordinarily prolific work." She covers the nature and structure of the psyche, laws of psychic processes and forces, and practical applications of Jung's theory-all amply illustrated by diagrams. The book's values is attested by its numerous editions.


Studies in Analytical Psychology, by Gerhard Adler. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1948; New York: W. W. Norton, 1948; London: Hodder & Stoughton, rev. 1966; New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons for the C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, rev. 1967p; Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, repr. 1968; New York:Capricorn Books/G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1969 + p (250 + vi, incl. 6-p. index, 19 illus., 3-p. foreword by Jung).

Basing this volume on lectures delivered in London during 1936-45, Adler presents the results of fifteen years of clinical experience as an analyst. He explains the fundamental concept of the psyche as a self-regulating system, describing the experiences of his clients who have worked on the integration of the personality by the process of individuation. Following a technical discussion of the methods of Jung's analytical psychology as they differ from Freud's and Adler's, he illustrates the fundamentals of the collective unconscious and archetypes by the study of a dream, which is followed by essays on the ego and the cycle of life, on consciousness and cure, on a psychological approach to religion, and on Jung's contribution to modern consciousness.


Freud or Jung?, by Edward Glover. Oxford and London: Blackwell, 1949; London: Allen & Unwin, 1950; New York: W. W. Norton, 1940; Cleveland and New York: Meridian Books/World Pub. Co., 1956p; repr. 1958p (207, incl. 12-p. index).

Glover, an English leader in Freudian analysis, was asked to write a negative critique of Jung's psychology as being a religion rather than a scientific conception; but his investigation revealed no such bias. In trying to answer the question of whether Jung's concept of the unconscious bears any resemblance to or contradicts or is an improvement of Freudian theory, he discusses mental structure, mental energy, mental mechanism, character and consciousness, dreams and neuroses, individuation, alchemy, religion, and art, being very critical of jungian theory.


Analytical Psychology and the English Mind, by Helton Godwin Baynes. London: Methuen, 1950; New York: British Book Centre, 1950 (242 + ix, incl. 4-p. index, 1-p. foreword by Jung).

Having served as Jung's assistant for several years and as Jung's traveling companion on the African expedition, Baynes offers this collection of essays, whose title is taken from one of the ten essays. He also includes the first three chapters of an unfinished book. He deals with complex psychic conditions and discusses such topics as the unconscious; the provisional life; psychological background of the parent-child relation; Freud versus Jung; importance of dream analysis; the structure of the personality in relation to physical research; psychological origins of divine kingship; persona; and libido.


An Introduction to Jung's Psychology, by Frieda Fordham. London and Baltimore:Pelican/Penguin Books, 1953p; Harmondsworth and Baltimore: Pelican/Penguin Books, ed.2 1959; ed.3 1966p (159, incl. 4-p. index, 7-p. bibl., 2-p gloss. of Jungian terms, 24-p. biographical sketch of Jung, 1-p. foreword by Jung).

[Editor's Note: This book, now out of print, is available on the Jung Page and can be found under "Introduction to Jung."]

Jung states in the foreword of Fordham's book that she "has delivered a fair and simple account of the main aspects of my psychological work," a by no means easy task. After an introductory outline of his psychology, she discusses the topics of psychological types; archetypes of the collective unconscious; religion and the individuation process; psychotherapy; dreams and their interpretation; and psychology and education. The last edition contains a long biographical sketch, "Jung on Himself," expanded from four pages in previous editions by drawing widely from his own autobiographical Memories, Dreams, Reflections.


Six Talks on Jung's Psychology, by Robert A. Clark. Pittsburgh, Perm.: Boxwood Press, 1953p (84, incl. 4-p. bibl.).

Familiar with many schools of psychotherapy, psychiatrist Clark deems the analytical psychology of Jung to be most appealing because it lends itself to the application of religious concepts to therapy. He discusses the topics of Jung's libido theory; ego psychology and psychological types; the shadow and "how we know the unconscious"; archetypes and the collective unconscious; technique of analysis; and applications in psychotherapy.


Experiment in Depth: A Study of the Work of Jung, Eliot, and Toynbee, by P. W. Martin. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1955; ed.2 1976p; New York: Pantheon Books, 1955; New York: Humanities Press, 1955 (275 + vii, incl. 7-p. index, 2-p. bibl.).

Martin's experiment deals with the "mythical method," which explores the powerful forces from the unconscious depths (symbols, visions, ideas) that heretofore have been used chiefly by totalitarian ideologies but that now need to be used for more humane values and aims. He combines Toynbee's concept of withdrawal-and-return ("from the outer world of political and social chaos to the inner world of the psyche" and returning to the outer world with a vision of a new way of life) with Jung's creative ways of working out the psychological means of withdrawal-and-return and with Eliot's expression of it in "the greatest poetry of the age." Jungian topics include psychological types; archetypal images and themes; transforming symbol; the way between opposites; and the individuation process.


Individuation: A Study of the Depth Psychology of Carl Gustav Jung, by Josef Goldbrunner.(Ger.: Individuation: Die Tiefenpsycbologie von Carl Gustav Jung. Munich: Erich Wesel Verlag, 1955.) London: Hollis & Carter, 1955; New York: Pantheon Books, 1956; Notre Dame, Ind.: U. of Notre Dame Press, 1964 p (204 + xii, incl. 4-p. ref. notes).

Citing Jung as the leader of the new depth psychology that "was extended and disengaged from neurology," Goldbrunner examines Jung's work, stating that "the life of the healthy soul and no longer merely the diseased soul is being investigated." He discusses the reality of the psyche; the personal unconscious; neurosis; analysis; dreams; the problem of types; psychic energy; the collective unconscious and its analysis; archetypes; individuation; and religious experience. In the second part of the book he deals with social subjects such as religion, anthropology, ethics, education, and the cure of souls.


The Death and Rebirth of Psychology: Freud, Adler, Jung, and Rank and the Impact of Their Culminating Insights on Modern Man, by Ira Progoff. New York: Julian Press, 1956; New York: Delta Books/Dell, 1964p; New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973p (275 + xii, incl. 9-p. bibl.).

Approaching historically his examination of the major authors of depth psychology, Progoff focuses on psychological concepts and tools in order to "provide a new basis for studies in the social sciences and humanities." His book includes sections on Jung on the road away from Freud; the deepening of Jung's personal perspective; dialogue of Freud and Jung on the magnitude of man (from Oedipus to the collective unconscious); and Jung at the outposts of psychology (the unconscious as part of nature, and the self as symbol and reality).


New Developments in Analytical Psychology, by Michael Fordham. London: Routledge & KeganPaul, 1957; New York: Humanities Press, 1957 (214, incl. 16-p. index, 7 illus., 4-p. foreword by Jung).

From a background in neurology and psychiatry, Fordham first defines the relation of these to the concept of unconscious archetypes and then reflects on archetypes and synchronicity and on image and symbol, with additional notes on the transference. He deals, in the remainder of the book, with his own specialty within analytical psychology, child psychology. There are essays on origins of the ego in childhood; the self and ego in childhood; child analysis; significance of archetypes for the transference in childhood; and a child guidance approach to marriage. Jung, in the foreword, "salutes the author's collaboration in the field of psychotherapy and analytical psychology" and draws attention to Fordham's discussion of the problem of synchronicity, dealt with "in a masterly manner."


Theories of Personality, by Calvin S. Hall and Gardner Lindzey. London: Chapman & Hall, 1957; New York: Wiley & Sons, 1957; ed.2 1970; ed.3 1978 (725 + xvi, incl.17-p. index, end-chap. bibl. refs., 18 illus.).

Among the eighteen theories of personality presented by Hall and Lindzey is a lengthy survey of Jung's analytic theory (chapter 4: pp. 113-54, including a five-page bibliography), which is discussed under the subjects of structure of the personality, the dynamics of the personality, and development of personal characteristics.


Current Trends in Analytical Psychology: The Proceedings of the First International Congress for Analytical Psychology, Zurich, 1958, edited by Gerhard Adler. London: Tavistock Publications for International Association for Analytical Psychology (IAAP), 1961; New York: Humanities Press, 1961 (326 + ix, incl. 12-p. index, 21 illus.).

Consisting of eighteen papers delivered at the first congress of the IAAP ( founded in 1956), this book represents a wide variety of themes. Contributions by authors included in this annotated bibliography are "Healing in Depth" (Barker); "The Emergence of a Symbol in a Five-year-old Child" (Fordham); "What Makes the Symbol Effective as a Healing Agent?" (Harding); "An Approach to Group Analysis" (Hobson); "An Analyst's Dilemma" (H. Kirsch); "The Problem of Dictatorship as Represented in MobyDick" (J. Kirsch); "Homoeroticism in Primitive Society as a Function of the Self" (Layard); "The Significance of the Genetic Aspect for Analytical Psychology" (Neumann); "From Schizophrenia to Art" (Westman); and "The Magical Dimension in Transference and Countertransference" (Whitmont). Papers by others deal with the topics of pairs of opposites; extraversion and introversion; the mother figure; the mother-child relationship; ego integration and coniunctio; Christian symbolism; homosexual transference; and self-realization.


The Psychology of Jung: A Critical Interpretation, by Avis M. Dry. London: Methuen, 1961; New York: John Wiley, 1961 (329 + xiv, ind. 9-p. indexes, 9-p. bibl.).

The subtitle indicates Dry's aim "to render the psychology of Jung more understandable" to general readers who are interested though uncommitted, trying to avoid both "enthusiastic supporters" and "uniformly hostile" orthodox psychiatrists. After discussing Jung's early, intermediate, and later concepts of the mind, she examines Jungian therapy and related insights; Jung's critique of Freud and psychotherapy; religion in the work of Jung; some cognitive and emotional factors of changes in Jung's work and its appeal; and the social background of Jungian psychology and its appeal.


How the Mind Works: An Introduction to the Psychology of C. G. Jung, by David Cox. (Orig.subtitle: A Simple Account of Analytical Psychology. London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1963; subsequently: Teach Yourself Analytical Psychology. London: English Universities Press, 1965; then: Modern Psychology: The Teaching of Carl Gustav Jung. New York: Barnes & Noble Everyday Handbook, 1968p.) London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1978p (Teach Yourself Books) (207 pp.).

Intending to popularize Jung's teachings, as indicated in the titles, Cox expresses more concern with human need for self-knowledge than for "clinical conditions of sickness and health." He deals with analytical psychology in relation to psychoanalysis and then with the subjects of consciousness; the unconscious and the psyche; how the psyche functions; the collective unconscious; psychological types; psychic development; archetypes; the self; and analysis; ending with an impression of "Jungianism."


Jung on Elementary Psychology: A Discussion between C. G. Jung and Richard Evans, byRichard Evans. (Orig. title: Conversations with Carl Jung and Reactions from Ernest Jones. Princeton, N.J.: D. Van Nostrand, 1964p.) New York: E. P. Dutton, rev. 1976p; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979p (Reprinted as Dialogue with C. G. Jung. New York: Praeger, 1981.) (242 + xi, incl. 5-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 65-p. transcription of four one-hour film interviews in 1957).

In an attempt to introduce Jung's ideas through the spontaneity of their conversation, Evans probes Jung's reactions to Freud and to various psychoanalytic concepts, such as psychosexual development, "ego," and "superego." He then questions Jung about his conception of psychological types and functions, motivation and psychic individuation, archetypes, dreams and the personal unconscious, and diagnostic and therapeutic practices.


What Jung Really Said, by E. A. Bennet. London: MacDonald, 1966; New York: Schocken, 1967+p; ed.2 1983p (180 + xiii, incl. 6-p. index, 6-p. ref. notes, 7-p. intro. by Anthony Storr).

Because Jung's views often are misunderstood, Bennet aims to present what Jung "really said" about key subjects in modern psychological thought, which he outlines as they developed in Jung's work. He begins with the stages in Jung's career and then discusses the topics of psychological types; unconscious mental activity; dreams; inner world; widening circle of Jung's thought; confrontation with the unconscious; the undiscovered self; and personality as a whole (conscious and the unconscious); ending with individuation as process (the self).


From the Life and Work of C. G. Jung, by Aniela Jaffé. (Ger.: Aus Leben und Werkstatt von C. G. Jung. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1968.) New York: Colophon Books/Harper & Row, 1971 + p; London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1972p; Zurich: Daimon Verlag, new edn. 1989p(139 + ix).

These four essays by Jaffé, Jung's long-time secretary and an analyst herself, are presented at the request of various people who wanted clarification of certain problems in Jung's life and work. The essays deal with parapsychology (experience and theory of occultism and spiritualism, and synchronistIc phenomena); the influence of alchemy in the work of Jung; Jung's attitude toward National Socialism (an account of favorable and unfavorable evidence as seen in historical perspective, together with a psychological interpretation); and an essay on Jung's last years that examines Jung's personality in human relationships. The new edition includes a 12-page commentary by van der Post on Jaffé's essay on Jung and Nazism entitled "Some Reflections on a Shadow that Refuses to Go Away." It also contains a fifth chapter on the creative phases in Jung'slife which appeared earlier in Jung's Last Years (1984) (annotated in chapter 1).


The Symbolic Quest: Basic Concepts of Analytical Psychology, by Edward Whitmont. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons / the C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, 1 Barrie & Rockliff, 1969; New York: Colophon Books/Harper & Row, 1973p; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press, 1978 + p (336, ind. 14-p. index, 4-p. bibl., 8-p. ref. notes).

Believing that the quest for symbolic experience has urgency and meaning for our time and that the most comprehensive and useful expression is in the discipline of analytical psychology, Whitmont presents a systematic survey of Jung's psychology. Beginning with an explanation of the symbolic approach and the use of nonrational and intuitive realms of functioning in the approach to the unconscious, he then covers the topics of the objective psyche; the complex; archetypes and myths; archetypes and the individual myth; and archetypes and personal psychology. He continues with discussions of psychological types; the persona; the shadow; male-female polarity; the anima and animus; the self; the ego; ego-self estrangement; ego development and the phases of life; concluding with the subject of therapy.


The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry, by Henri F. Ellenberger. London: Allen Lane, 1970; New York: Basic Books, 1970; 1981p (932 + xvi, ind. 21-p. name index, 11-p. subject index, 38 illus.).

In an extensive study of the history and evolution of dynamic psychiatry, Ellenberger discusses the systems of Janet, Freud, Adler, and Jung, closing with an interpretation of the dawn and rise of the new dynamic psychotherapy. He surveys Jung's psychology in chapter 9 (92 pp., including 264 reference notes), remarking that he interviewed Jung and later received annotations from Jung on the draft of his theories. His survey is comprised of family background and events, Jung's personality, and his work. It is arranged in eight sections, namely: the notion of psychological reality; Burghölzli; psychoanalysis (1909-13); psychological types; analytic psychology (psychic energetics; collective unconscious and archetypes; structure of the human psyche; individuation); psychotherapy; Eastern and Western wisdom; and the psychology of religion. He concludes with an analysis of Jung's sources and of the influence Jung has had.


Understanding Jung, by Norman Winski. Los Angeles: Sherbourne Press, 1971 (133 pp.).

Asserting that his book "cuts through the labyrinth of Jung's scholarship to the diamond hard essentials of his thinking," Winski aims to provide the "ABC's of Jungianism" for those who cannot afford a thorough reading of Jung. His short survey deals with the psyche, consciousness, the Jungian unconscious, the four functions, psychological types, dreams, and individuation and the self, concluding with a chapter on "What Is He Really Saying?" The dedication is addressed to "my black anima and my white anima."


Analytical Psychology: A Modern Science, edited by Michael Fordham et al. London: William Heinemann Medical Books for the Society of Analytical Psychology, 1973; London: Academic Press, new edn. 1980 (Library of Analytical Psychology, vol. 1) (209 + x, incl. 5-p. index, bibl. at end of each essay).

The first volume of The Library of Analytical Psychology consists of ten essays published originally in the Journal of Analytical Psychology between 1958 and 1969. The first half deals with such basic concepts as the self in Jung's work, symbols, archetypes of the collective unconscious, indivisibility of the personal and collective unconscious, ego and self in infancy, analyzing childhood for assimilation of the shadow, and individuation. Among the clinical studies,discussed in the second half, are reflections on not being able to use imagination, the problem of identity related to the image of a damaged mother, and invasion and separation.


A Primer of Jungian Psychology, by Calvin S. Hall and Vernon J. Nordby. New York: J. P. Tarcher, 1973; London: Croorn Helm, 1973; New York: Mentor Books/New American Library, 1973p (142 + xi, incl. 4-p. index, 1-p. bibl., 4-p. guide for reading Jung, 16-p. biography of Jung).

Intending that this pocket book be purely expository, Hall and Nordby introduce basic concepts of Jungian psychology such as the structure, dynamics, and development of the normal personality. They do not make evaluations, criticisms, or comparisons with other approaches, and they omit Jung's views on abnormal behavior and psychotherapy. They present Jung's approach to the structure of personality (psyche; consciousness; personal unconscious; collective unconscious; interactions among the structures of personality), the dynamics of personality (psychic energy; psychic values; principle of equivalence; principle of entropy; progression and regression), the development of personality (individuation; transcendence and integration; stages of life), psychological types, and symbols and dreams, and end with an evaluation of Jung's place in the field of psychology.


C. G. Jung and the Scientific Attitude, by Edmund D. Cohen. New York: Philosophical Library, 1975; Totowa, N.J.: Littlefield, Adams, 1976p (167 + xii, incl. 6 p. index, 2-p. bib].).

Given Western culture's emphasis on scientific materialism and positivism, Cohen aims to correct misconceptions that Jung is inconsistent or self-contradictory. His theories are "full of paradoxes and conjunctions of opposites, but what appear to be contradictory turn out, under close scrutiny, not to be so." Cohen analyzes the following topics: the complex, the structure of the psyche and psychological types, and the collective unconscious and universal forms. The latter part is devoted to an interpretation of Jung and the scientific attitude, Jung's social relevance, Jung and academic psychology, and the dangers of analytical psychology.


Re-Visioning Psychology, by James Hillman. New York: Harper & Row, 1975; Don Mills, Ontario: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1975; New York: Colophon Books/Harper & Row, 1977p (266 + xvii, ind. 6-p. indexes of names and subjects, 30-p. ref. notes).

In his attempt to "re-vision" psychology from the point of view of the soul, Hillman describes his thesis as "old-fashioned and radically novel because it harks back to the classical notions of soul and yet advances ideas that current psychology has not even begun to consider." He draws upon the accumulated insights of Western tradition from the Greeks to the Renaissance and beyond, to the Romantics and Freud and Jung, moving toward a new kind of psychological thinking and feeling. His re-visioning poses questions about personifying or imagining things, pathologizing or falling apart, psychologizing or seeing through, and dehumanizing or soul-making.


C. G. Jung and Analytical Psychology: A Comprehensive Bibliography, by Joseph F. Vincie and Margareta Rathbauer-Vincie. New York and London: Garland, 1977 (Garland Reference Library of Social Science, 38) (297 + xiv, incl. 18-p. author index, 15-p. subject index).

Containing 3,680 titles of works on Jung and analytical psychology and 344 titles of book reviews, this bibliography of books, articles in journals, and a section on book reviews of works by Jung is arranged chronologically (and alphabetically within each year) through 1975. Its international nature (it includes all major European languages) covers a wide range of subjects from psychology to philosophy, religion, mythology, literary criticism, and aesthetics. A work is defined as Jungian "if the author concerned himself with Jung, his work, or Analytical Psychology, if his article was published in a journal sponsored by a Jungian organization, or if he claimed to have been working within the Analytical Psychology tradition." Works by Jung are not included. Items are not annotated.


Catalog of the Kristine Mann Library of the Analytical Psychology Club of New York, Inc. Boston: J. K. Hall, 1978 (1412 + v, 2 vols.).

In 1978, the Analytical Psychology Club of New York published, in an oversize format, a catalog of its library, which contains more than 5,000 volumes, by photocopying cards from the library card file. Volume 1 consists of the author-title cards with approximately 19,000 entries. Volume 2, the subject catalog, includes works in analytical psychology and in related fields of religion, philosophy, art, anthropology, mythology, fairy tales, and alchemy.


The Wisdom of Jung, by Chester P. Szemborski. New Rochelle, N.Y.: Self published, 1978p (120+ 5-p. bibl.).

The tone of this self-published book on Jungian thought, insights, and "just plain wisdom" is reflected in the author's statement that Jung's "psychology can reveal to us the ambiguities of our lives, no matter how religious or self-righteous we may be." Szemborski discusses the body; the unconscious; dreams; complexes; neurosis; irrational functions; rational functions; instinct; psychotherapy; religion; education; personality; society; and consciousness.


Jung and Freud Return, by Robert R. Leichtman. Columbus, Ohio: Ariel Press/ The Publishing House of Light, 1979p (98, incl. 12-p. gloss., 1 illus.) (From Heaven to Earth Series, 4).

This book consists of interviews conducted mostly in 1973 with the spirits of Jung and Freud through the mediumship of D. Kendrick Johnson. Leichtman presents his conversation with Jung (34 pp.) and then a three-way conversation with Jung and Freud (23 pp.) dealing with their evaluation of current practices of psychiatry and psychology and potential extensions of their work, as well as their disagreements with each other during their physical lives. He provides a 9-page summary of their contributions to psychology in this small-format book.


Jung in Context: Modernity and the Making of Psychology, by Peter Homans. Chicago and London: U. of Chicago Press, 1978; 1982p (234 + xi, incl. 14-p. index, 9-p. bibl., 10 p. guide to reading Jung.)

As the title suggests, Homans examines the formation of Jung's psychological ideas in the context of the psycho-biographical, religious, and sociological factors that intertwined to influence Jung's thought, especially in his early formative period. He characterizes Jung's central concept as a shift of meaning and order from the social sphere to the personal, psychological sphere.


Discovering the Mind. Vol. 3, Freud versus Adler and Jung, by Walter A. Kaufmann. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1980 (494 + xviii, incl. 8p. index, 12-p. bibl., 25 illus.).

Kaufmann's thesis is that "Adler and Jung tried to go beyond Freud while he was still living, but slowly and reluctantly, I have arrived at the conclusion that they obstructed rather than advanced our understanding of ourselves and others." Claiming to be no Freudian, he declares that his main objective is to present the real Freud, defending him as "patient, tranquil, tolerant, and nondogmatic," whereas he describes Jung as an "archetypal counter-revolutionary."


The Rhizome and the Flower: The Perennial Philosophy-Yeats and Jung, by James Olney. Berkeley and Los Angeles: U. of California Press, 1980 (379 + xvi, incl. 9-p. index).

Olney takes a long time (two-thirds of the book-from ancient Greece through the intellectual history of the West) to get to Yeats and Jung, illustrating that his main subject is actually the perennial philosophy. Although Yeats and Jung did not meet, Olney observes that there is an astonishing agreement between them on many concepts. One spoke the language of poetry, the other of psychology. Olney characterizes the Yeatsian and Jungian flowers as having their roots (rhizomes) in classical Greece and in the depths of the collective unconscious. In chapter 8, he describes Jung's psychology as the psychology of the pleroma (fullness) and demonstrates that the psyche is a natural system, wherein truths are revealed by the unconscious.


Jungian Psychology in Perspective, by Mary Ann Mattoon. New York: Free Press/ Macmillan, 1981; 1985p; Toronto: Collier Macmillan Canada, 1981; London: Collier Macmillan, 1982; 1986p (334 + xvi, incl. 14-p. index, 36p. bib].).

Based on university lectures, Mattoon's book provides the first comprehensive introductory text on Jungian psychology for academic use, combining the approach of academic psychology with her Jungian clinical experience and giving attention to contemporary issues. She covers the topics of components of the psyche; the collective unconscious; attitude and function types; female and male psychology; psychic energy and self-regulation; complexes; projection; symbol; and synchronicity. This is followed by discussions of psychopathology; human development from birth to old age; the way of individuation; religion; relationships and sexuality; psychotherapy; dreams; social and political issues; and research in analytical psychology. Appended is a comprehensive, annotated bibliography.


Freud and Jung: Conflicts of Interpretation, by Robert S. Steele. London and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982 (390 + x, incl. 16-p. index, 9-p. bibl., 3-p. ref. notes).

Steele's thesis is that Freud's and Jung's antithetical positions on many issues are due to one philosophical disagreement, namely, "that they did not agree on what reality was." Given their divergent views of reality, he states that Freud's case studies are better than Jung's and Jung's textual analyses are superior to Freud's. He considers that each one's life shaped his theories and then explores how each used his psychological insights to manage his life as well as his view of his own past.


Jungian Theory and Therapy, by Tom Laughlin. Los Angeles: Panarion, 1982p (vol. 2 of Jungian Psychology; vol. 1 not published) (358 + xiii, incl. 16-p. index, 4-p. bib].).

Stating that his main objective is to reawaken interest in Jung's most fundamental concept, "his psychology of instincts," Laughlin aims to clearly establish Jung's authentic discoveries about humans and the "instinctual unconscious," which he contends have been muddied over with mythological nonsense. He examines a variety of subjects in order to point out the need for authentic Jungian guidelines, always maintaining that instincts are the foundations for all behavior.


C. G. Jung: The Fundamentals of Theory and Practice, by Elie G. Humbert. (Fr.: C. G. Jung. Paris: Editions Universitaires, 1983p) Wilmette, Ill.: Chiron Publications, 1988 +p (147 + xix, incl. 5-p. index, 2-p. Humbert bibl., 3p. chron. of Jung's life).

In showing the interrelationship between Jung's psychotherapeutic practice and his personal reflections, French Jungian analyst Humbert discusses the interaction of theory and practice and recognizes from his own experience the internal logic of Jung's own work, namely, that "analytic writing flows from analysts' own self-analysis, which is conducted in counterpoint to the analysis that they do with patients." He examines the fundamentals of confrontation with the unconscious (conscious activity; dreams and active imagination; compensatory dynamics; symbol and feelings; images of the other; and transference) and relations between consciousness and the unconscious (archetypes; consciousness and the unconscious; the individuation process; and analysis).


In the Wake of Jung: A Selection from Harvest, edited by Molly Tuby. London: Conventure, 1983p (207, incl. 2 illus., 1-p. editor's preface, 13-p. intro. by Gerhard Adler).

Covering a wide range of Jungian ideas that have appeared "in the wake of Jung," this collection consists of thirteen articles from Harvest, the journal of the Analytical Psychology Club of London. It includes articles on healing the child within (Barker); Gnosis and the single vision (Begg); psychics and psyche (Claude Curling); woman as mediator (de Castillejo); the Medusa archetype today (Andrea Dykes); reflections on Jung's concept of synchronicity (Gordon); death and renewal in East and West (Hannah); Jung and Marx: alchemy, Christianity, and the work against nature (David Holt); transformations of the persona (Faye Pye); the inner journey of the poet (Raine); opposites and the healing power of symbols (Tuby); a session with Jung (von der Heydt); and Jung and society (von Franz). Gerhard Adler provides an introduction on Jung's theories and significance.


Jung's Struggle with Freud, by George B. Hogenson. Notre Dame, Ind. and London: U. of NotreDame Press, 1983p (180 + xi, incl. 3-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 8-p. ref. notes).

By trying to consider Freud and Jung together rather than separately, Hogenson's philosophical critique of psychoanalysis is an attempt to "redress previous philosophical oversight" in the encounter of Freud and Jung. He interprets the confrontation as being a "conflict of mythologies," whereby Jung's Gnostic mythology projected an imagery that would allow him to overcome Freud's projected mythology of the primal killing of the father. He characterizes Jung's struggle as focusing on Freud's refusal to risk his authority as possessor of the only means of interpreting the unconscious.


Jung in Modern Perspective, edited by Renos K. Papadopoulos and Graham S. Saayman. Hounslow: Wildwood House, 1984 (316 + ix, incl. 8-p. index, 22-p. ref. notes, 4 illus.).

This volume, the result of a symposium held at the University of Cape Town that commemoratedthe centenary of Jung's birth, offers the opportunity for a contemporary perspective on Jung's contributions to psychology and culture. The eighteen papers represent a variety of views. Included are articles on Jung's conceptions concerning the Other (Papadopoulos); rebirth (AlfredPlant); active imagination (Elie Humbert); yoga (Phillip Faber and Graham Saayman); religion (John de Gruchy); history (Joseph Henderson); and musical art (Gunter Pulvermacher).


Reading Jung: Science, Psychology, and Religion, by Volney P. Gay. Chico, Calif.: Scholars Press, 1984p (American Academy of Religion Studies, 34) (149 + xvi, ind. 7-p. index, 20-p. bibl.).

In order to furnish serious students with a systematic way of reading the major works of Jung in a critical manner, Gay provides "a handbook or guide [designed] as if all its readers were intelligent generalists who have come upon Jung for the first time." He emphasizes Jung's earlier, more technical works rather than the more popular works of his later years. Major subjects are psychiatric studies of Jung's early period; symbols of transformation (the break with Freud); advent of analytical psychology (basic theories); psychology and religion; and individuation and the self. Gay provides a question sheet to allow readers to respond to arguments.


Jung and the Post-Jungians, by Andrew Samuels. London and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985; 1986p* (293 + x, incl. 9-p. index, 11-p. bibl.).

In discussing the current status of the field of analytical psychology, Samuels argues for its place within the wider field of psychotherapy. He compares three major contemporary Jungian schools of thought, which he defines as classical, developmental, and archetypal. His comprehensive attempt to describe and interpret the extraordinary developments in Jungian psychology since Jung's death in 1961 provides a basis for its increased recognition in the helping professions and in the wider culture. He critiques Jung's own views and "post-jungian" points of view as well as other psychological theories in his chapters on archetype and complex; the ego; the self and individuation; development of personality; analytical process; gender, sex, and marriage; and dreams. He devotes a chapter to archetypa psychology and concludes with a comparison and evaluation of post-Jungian trends.


Understanding Jung, Understanding Yourself, by Peter O'Connor. Melbourne: Methuen Haynes, 1985; New York and Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1986p (148 + xi, incl. 2-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 2 illus.).

Drawing on a series of introductory lectures on Jung for the layperson, O'Connor intends that the book, as the lectures, serve as "an 'introduction' to 'introductory' books on Jung." He intends that it should not be just about Jung's psychology but that it should also help in facilitating the process of understanding life. He discusses the nature of the psyche; archetypes and the collective unconscious; the personal unconscious; psychological types; the self and the individuation process; alchemy; anima and animus; marriage; and dreams and symbols.


International Abstracts in Analytical Psychology, edited by Peter Mudd. Wilmette, Ill.: ChironPublications, 1989 + (annual publication).

The first issue (for 1986, published 1989) of international abstracts in analytical psychology, the idea for which was approved at the Berlin Congress of the International Association for Analytical Psychology, contains 144 abstracts of books and articles by eighty-three authors published during 1986 in English, German, French, Portuguese, Italian, Japanese, Korean, and Hebrew. In addition, 122 books and articles published during 1986 are listed without abstracts. Included is a 20-page subject index. The second issue (for 1987, published 1990) contains abstracts for 123 books and articles by 79 authors. There are thirty-nine listings without abstracts.


Soul and Body: Essays on the Theories of Jung, by C. A. Meier. Santa Monica and San Francisco: Lapis Press, 1986 +p (351, incl. 17-p. index, 2-p. index of Greek words and phrases, 17-p. bibl., 7 illus., 3-p. intro. by Joseph L. Henderson).

Arranged chronologically, Meier's book presents seventeen papers and essays, most of which were delivered at congresses and conferences and later Published in journals between 1937 and 1983. Swiss analyst Meier, who has tried to closely parallel his life with that of Jung's, though thirty years later, provides a wide range of subjects in analytical psychology, including the collective unconscious, psychotherapy, the transference, dreams, psychosomatic medicine, religion, psychological types and individuation, consciousness, and altered states of consciousness.


A Jungian Psychology Resource Guide, compiled by James Arraj and Tyra Arraj Chiloquin, Ore.: Tools for Inner Growth, 1987p (136, incl. 6-p. index.).

In response to their view that "Jung's work ... is spreading all over the world," the Arrajes provide information on approximately one hundred lay and professional Jungian groups (societies, clubs, centers, associations, institutes, and foundations), mainly in the United States. They also furnish information on psychological type organizations and Jungian conferences, periodicals, book publishers, sources for ordering books, and libraries and bibliographic tools of particular interest to students of analytical psychology. Also included is an 8-p. list of readings, along with information on Jungian analysis and training programs.


Freud and Jung: Years of Friendship, Years of Loss, by Linda Donn. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons/Macmillan Publishing Co., 1988 (238 + xvi, incl. 11-P. index, 6 p. bibl., 32-p.ref. notes, 30 illus.).

Attracted to the idea of friendship between men of genius, a joining of intellect and passion, Donn grew to cherish the company of Freud and Jung in her imagination during four years of research about their lives, highlighted by many interviews with those who knew them. She provides descriptive accounts of images and scenarios that came to her from events selected from their childhoods and careers with particular attention given to their warm exchanges of ideas that developed into shared friendship with personal meetings and active correspondence. She reconstructs in detail the events of 1912-13 that strained the relationship to the breaking point, concluding that the long ordeal of Freud and Jung was a reminder that some piece of the psyche was "beyond comprehension."


A Guided Tour of the Collected Works of C. G. Jung, by Robert H. Hopcke. Boston and Shaftesbury: Shambhala Publications, 1989 (191 + xii, ind. 9p. bibl. of the CW, 2-p. foreword by Aryeh Maidenbaum).

Aiming to help interested people gain entrance into Jung's writings and to "glimpse the heart and soul of Jung's thought," Hopcke provides a planned course of reading, a guided tour. This topically organized introduction to the wide variety of Jung's concepts is based on the belief that most of Jung's writing is accessible to a general readership. He divides the plan into four parts, the first and longest being "The Ways and Means of the Psyche" (62 pp.) followed by "Archetypal Figures," "Topics of Special Interest," and "Esoterica." He begins each of the forty topics with a short (2- to 4-page) discussion of each concept, following which are suggested readings under four categories ("to begin" one or more of Jung's essays or works that are easiest to read first andthat treat the topic at some length; "to go deeper"more difficult than the first; "related works" of Jung; and "secondary sources" by Jungians and others). He arranges the topics so as to build on the material covered in the previous topic.


Intimate Friends, Dangerous Rivals: The Turbulent Relationship between Freud and Jung, by Duane Schultz. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher, 1990 + p (247 + xvi, ind. 7-p. index, 6-p. bibl., 8-p. notes).

Psychologist-historian Schultz examines the influences that shaped Freud's and Jung's natures and the needs that bound them to each other, followed by description and analysis of events of their six-year association ­an "uneasy alliance," which he characterizes as more emotional than intellectual.


On Jung, by Anthony Stevens. London & New York: Routledge, 1990 (292 + x, ind. 11 -p. index, 5-p. bibl., 13 illus.).

Following introductory chapters on Jung's psychology, Stevens examines Jung's life and work from birth to maturity and from midlife to death.