Cross Currents: Chapter 4

This subject category contains works that deal specifically with the structure and dynamics of the psyche, rather than those that cover analytical psychology more broadly, as in chapter 3.

by Donald R. Dyer
(Shambhala Publications, 1991)

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4      The Psyche 

This subject category contains works that deal specifically with the structure and dynamics of the psyche, rather than those that cover analytical psychology more broadly, as in chapter 3. Jung defines psyche as the totality of all psychic processes conscious as well as unconscious; and he defines soul as a clearly demarcated functional complex that can be described best as a "personality."

Following the five works by Jung, the material of the twenty-two works written by others is presented chronologically. Half of these were published after 1975.

The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, by C. G. Jung. New York: Pantheon Books(Bollingen Foundation), 1959; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1959; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, ed.2 1968; 1980p (CW 9, pt. 1) (451 + xi, incl. 31-p. index, 25-p. bibl., 84 illus.).

One of Jung's best known theories is the correlation of his concept of archetypes and that of the collective unconscious. Following the introduction of three essays to establish the basis of the concepts ("Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious"; "The Concept of the Collective Unconscious"; "Concerning the Archetypes"; originally published 1934-36), this volume of the Collected Works also contains six other essays dealing with psychological aspects (on the mother archetype; child archetype; rebirth; kore [maiden]; the phenomenology of the spirit in fairy tales; the trickster figure; 1939 54), along with two essays on individuation (on the process of individuation; and on the conscious, unconscious, and individuation; 1934-39) and one on mandala symbolism (1950) with interpretations of fifty-four mandala drawings and paintings.Appended is a 4-page article on mandalas (orig. 1955).


The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche, by C. G. Jung. New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Foundation), 1960; Toronto; McClelland & Stewart, 1960; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1960; ed.2 1970; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, ed.2 1969 (CW 8) (588 + x, incl. 34-p. index, 18-p. bib].).

These nineteen essays cover Jung's theories on the main structural and dynamic aspects of the psyche, formulated when he was developing his own concepts as distinct from those of Freud. Originally published between 1916 and 1947, most are lectures and articles from journals or collections, some of which are enlarged from the originals and revised. The longest is on synchronicity (101 pp.) which is accompanied by an earlier and more popular version. The most comprehensive is "On the Nature of the Psyche" (76 pp.), originally entitled "The Spirit of Psychology" in Eranos Jahrbuch, 1946. "On Psychic Energy" (64 pp.) and "General Aspects of Dream Psychology" (44 pp.) are other long essays. Others deal with the transcendent function; complex theory; constitution and heredity; human behavior; instinct and the unconscious; the nature of dreams; belief in spirits; spirit and life; basic postulates of analytical psychology; analytical psychology and Weltanschauung (philosophy of life); the real and the surreal; stages of life; and soul and death.


On the Nature of the Psyche, by C. G. Jung. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/ Bollingen, 1969p; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982p; London: Ark Publications, 1988p (166 + viii, incl. 10-p. index, 9-p. bibl.).

Extracted from volume 8 of the Collected Works (listed immediately above), this paperback consists of two essays, one being "On Psychic Energy," first published in 1928 and also translated and published the same year in Contributions to Analytical Psychology; the other being "On the Nature of the Psyche," which was published in 1954 in the Psycbologiscbe Abhandlungen journal. The latter essay considers the topics of the unconscious in historical perspective; significance of the unconscious in psychology; dissociability of the psyche; instinct and will; conscious and unconscious; the unconscious as a multiple consciousness; patterns of behavior and archetypes; and general considerations and prospects.


Four Archetypes: Mother, Rebirth, Spirit, Trickster, by C. G. Jung. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1970p; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971p; London: Ark Publications, 1986p (173 + viii, incl. 13-p index, 8-p. bibl.).

Extracted from volume 9, part 1 of the Collected Works (The Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious), this paperback brings together four essays on specific archetypes, following a brief introduction on theoretical aspects of the concept of archetypes. Presented are discussions on psychological aspects of the mother archetype (37 pp.), rebirth (35 pp.), phenomenology of the spirit in fairy tales (48 pp.), and psychology of the trickster figure (18 pp.), published originally in 1938, 1939, 1945, and 1954, respectively.


Character and the Unconscious: A Critical Exposition of the Psychology of Freud and Jung, by Johannes Hermanus van der Hoop. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1923 (International Library of Psychology, Philosophy and Scientific Method); New York: Harcourt Brace, 1923; Washington, D.C.: McGrath, 1923) (223 + viii, incl. 3-p. index, 2-p. bibl.).

Writing at a time when psychology as a science was still in a state of early growth, van der Hoop discusses psychological types on the heels of the publication of Jung's treatise on the subject. However, his main focus is on the unconscious, particularly the unconscious in the normal mind and the relation between the conscious and the unconscious. This follows a discussion of the origins of psychoanalysis. He contrasts the analytic and the synthetic points of view and then considers the development of emotions.


Psychic Energy: Its Source and Its Transformation, by M. Esther Harding. (Orig. subtitle: Its Source and Goal. London: Vision, 1942; New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Series X), 1948; ed.2 1963.) Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1973p (497 + xx, incl. 17-p. Index, 7-p. bibl., 35 illus., 2-p. foreword by Jung).

From an idea conceived during World War II, Harding aims to throw light on the contents and processes of the unconscious "as discovered by Jung," in order "to tame more effectively or even to transform the primitive nature and barbaric repression of human behavior." She discusses sources of Psychic energy within the concept of transformation of instinctive drives (sloth and restlessness; want and greed; enmity and friendship; will to dominate and self-respect; and sexuality). She emphasizes that the transformation of energy involves inner conflict, illustrated by the dragon and the hero. This conflict leads to the quest for wholeness that can in turn lead to a reconciliation of opposites as represented by the mandala pattern, contributing to the integrationof the personality.


The Trickster: A Study in American Indian Mythology, by Paul Radin. (Ger.: Der göttliche Schelm. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1955.) London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1956; New York: Philosophical Library, 1956; New York: Schocken Books, ed.2 1972p (211 + xxv, ind. 17-p. comm. by Jung, 19-p. comm. by Kerényi).

As a symbol of the unconscious, Radin states, the trickster is one of the oldest mythic expressions of mankind and depicts "man's struggle with himself and with a world into which he has been thrust without his volition and consent." Knowing neither good nor evil yet responsible for both, duping others and always being duped himself, his problem is basically a psychological one. In the psychological commentary by Jung, the archetype of the trickster is characterized as "a collective shadow figure, an epitome of all the inferior traits of character in individuals ... the figure nearest consciousness." Kerényi's commentary deals with the trickster in relation to Greek mythology.


The Objective Psyche, by Michael Fordham. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1958; New York:Humanities Press, 1958 (214 + vii, ind. 18-p. index).

Fordham's aim in presenting these essays, which are less specialized than those in his 1957 book, New Developments in Analytical Psychology, is to compensate for the trend that has neglected studies of theory in personal, ego, and child psychology and has overlooked the importance of the transference in analytical practice. Following his outline of the development and status of Jung's researches, he discusses the concept of the objective psyche; individuation and ego development; problems of the active imagination; Jung's contribution to social psychiatry; individual and collective psychology; analytical psychology and religious experience; and analytical psychology and psychotherapy.


Complex/Arcbetype/Symbol in the Psychology of C. G. Jung, by Jolande Jacobi. (Ger.:Komplex/Archetypus/Symbol in der Psychologie C. G. Jungs. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1957.) London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1959; Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1959; New York:Pantheon Books (Bollingen Series LVII), 1959; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen,ed.2 1965; 1971p (230 + xii, ind. 16-p. index, 1 I-p. bibl., 3-p. foreword by Jung).

Jacobi's objective is to clarify three basic concepts of Jung's that have given rise to many misunderstandings of his theories. She explains the central, interrelated concepts of complexes (feeling-toned groups of representations in the unconscious that are disturbing the normal course of the psychic association process); archetypes (profound riddles hidden in the depths of the psyche which arrange psychic elements into certain images); and symbols (manifested by archetypes and perceived in some form by the conscious mind). She devotes the second half of the book to a dream of an eight-yearold girl (taken from Jung's collection), given as an illustration of archetypal themes and their psychological interpretation.


Der Arcbetyp/Tbe Archetype: The Proceedings of the Second International Congress for Analytical Psychology, Zurich, 1962, edited by Adolf Guggenbühl-Craig. Basel and New York: S. Karger Verlag, 1964 (234 pp.).

The nineteen papers delivered at the second congress of the IAAP, including fourteen in English, bring new aspects and delve more deeply into "the mystery of the human psyche" through analytical psychology. Contributions of authors whose books are in this annotated bibliography are on trinity and quaternity (Edinger); theory of archetypes as applied to child development with particular reference to the self (Fordham); and archetypes of culture (Henderson). Other papers are on the archetype and natural law (Aylward); angels as archetype and symbol (Allenby), archetype as a prognostic factor (Kluger); archetype of separation (Strauss); and adoration of the complex (van Leight Frank).


The Reality of the Psyche: The Proceedings of the Third International Congress for Analytical Psychology, Montreux, 1965, edited by Joseph B. Wheelwright. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons for the C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, 1968 ; London: Barrie & Rockliff, 1969 (316 pp.).

The third congress of the IAAP heard eighteen papers on a variety of topics within analytical psychology under the theme of reality of the psyche. Contributions by authors whose books are in this annotated bibliography are on individuation in childhood (Fordham); symbols: content and process (Gordon); reality of the psyche (Harding); fantasy of the "white child" (Hillman); flood dreams (Kluger); and symbols of the unus mundus (von Franz).


The Unconscious in Its Empirical Manifestations: With Special Reference to the Association Experiment of C. G. Jung, by C. A. Meir. (Ger.: Die Empirie des Unbewussten. Zurich, 1968.) Boston: Sigo Press, 1984; 1990p (The Psychology of C. G. Jung, vol. 1) (236 + xiv, incl. 10-p.index, 26-p. bibl., 13 illus., 4-p. intro. by Laurens van der Post).

Using a historical approach, Meier's aim is to provide a "conscientious account" of the empirical elements of Jung's psychology as they apply not only to the disturbing effects of the unconscious but to the creative effects as well. His "textbook" aims to follow Jung's original course of development and to leave open those questions which are still really open. He devotes nearly half of the text to the word- association experiment as developed by Jung between 1903 and 1907; he then examines the problem of interrelationships between psychic and physical phenomena ("soul and body"), ending with Jung's theory of complexes.


From Freud to Jung: A Comparative Study of the Psychology of the Unconscious, by Liliane Frey-Rohn. (Ger.: Von Freud zu Jung: Eine vergleichende Studie zur Psychologie des Unbewussten. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1969/Studien aus dem C. G. Jung-Institut, 19.) New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons for the C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, 1974; New York:Delta Books/ Dell, 1976; Boston: Shambliala Publications (A C. G. Jung Foundation/ DaimonBook), 1990p (345 + xiii, incl. 23-p. index, 11-p. bibl.).

In this continuation of her paper on "The Beginnings of Depth Psychology" in 1955, Frey-Rohn outlines the basic concepts of Freud and Jung, concentrating on the psychology of the unconscious, in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of Jung's work. She traces Jung's development "from his initial fascination with Freud's ideas to his gradual liberation fromthese powerful concepts, leading to a final breakthrough into his own unique being." Her historical-developmental approach follows Jung from trauma to the feeling-toned complex, from psychic "mechanism" to the total personality, from the personal to the collective contents of the psyche, from the unconscious drive to the collective unconscious, from libido to psychic energy, from the causal to the hermeneutic method, and from sign to symbol.


Number and Time: Reflections Toward a Unification of Depth Psychology and Physics, by Marie-Louise von Franz. (Ger.: Zahl und Zeit. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett Verlag, 1970.) Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern U. Press, 1974 +p (Studies in Jungian Thought) (332 + xi, incl. 12-p. index, 15-p. bibl.).

Stimulated by a conjecture of Jung's, von Franz explores the archetypes of the natural numbers as a step into the realization of the unity of psyche and matter. She defines her work in principle as "an attempt to observe the phenomena of number from a new angle, one based on a consideration of the unconscious"; it is not intended to be a study of number symbolism. She concludes that number appears to be the structural key common to matter and psyche, the common ordering factor of both.


The Experience of Introversion: An Integration of Phenomenological, Empirical, and Jungian Approaches, by Kenneth Joel Shapiro and Irving E. Alexander. Durham, N.C.: Duke U. Press, 1975 (180 + xi, incl. 3-p. index, 6-p. bibl.).

In an effort to elucidate Jung's concepts of introversion by reexamining his writings on the subject,Shapiro and Alexander present an experiential formulation of introversion based on a union of newly developing phenomenological approaches and traditional empirical approaches to personality. Data on introversion were obtained by the use of a projective method, the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).


Loose Ends: Primary Papers on Archetypal Psychology, by James Hillman. New York: Spring Publications for the Analytical Psychology Club of New York, 1975p; Dallas: Spring Publications, 1978p; 1986p (212, incl. end-chap. ref. notes, 3-p. list of works by Hillman).

This miscellany, which Hillman groups under the general topic of archetypal psychology, contains twelve pieces (from lectures, articles, and essays) published between 1963 and 1974. His themes include study; abandoning the child; nostalgia of the puer aeternus; betrayal; schism; three ways of failure and analysis; an archetypal model of the masturbation inhibition; and the psychology of parapsychology. He also discusses theories of archetypal psychology; Plotino, Ficino, and Vico as precursors of archetypal psychology; Jung on archetypal theory; and methodological problems in dream research.


Time: Rhythm and Repose, by Marie-Louise von Franz. London: Thames & Hudson (Art and Imagination Series), 1978; 1979p; Magnolia, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1983 (96, ind. 1-p. bibl., 143 illus.).

Composed of two-thirds pictures and one-third text, this large-format book presents time as one of the great archetypal experiences of human beings, which "has eluded all our attempts toward a completely rational explanation, . . . [and was] originally looked upon as a Deity." Themes, accompanied by many illustrations, are the stream of events; measuring the flow of time; time as an aspect or emanation of God; the sun god as the measure of time; measuring time by the sun; cyclical time; time as a procession of the gods; linear historical time; evolution; time as rhythm; measuring time by rhythm; necessity and change; divination; and transcending time.


Dynamics of the Self, by Gerhard Adler. London: Coventure, 1979p; London and Boston: Coventure, repr. 1990 +p (177 + xi, ind. 7-p. index, 6-p. ref. notes).

These eight papers, given as lectures between 1955 and 1976, have the creative power of the psyche as the common subject underlying all. Following an introductory essay on basic concepts of analytical psychology, Adler discusses the dynamics of the self; the logos of the unconscious; ego integration and patterns of the coniunctio; the question of meaning in psychotherapy; and depth psychology and the principle of complementarity. He includes an essay on his personal encounter with Jung and his works.


Archetypal Psychology: A Brief Account, by James Hillman. (It.: "Psicologia archetypica" in Enciclopedia del Novecento, 1981.) Dallas: Spring Publications, 1983p; 1985p (92, ind. 18-p. list of works by Hillman).

First named as such by Hillman (1970 issue of Spring), archetypal psychology, as distinguished from "analytical" (Jung's) psychology, reflects "the deepened theory of Jung's later work which attempts to solve psychological problems beyond scientific models" and is preferred by Hillman because archetypal psychology "belongs to all cultures, all forms of activity." He explores the topics of image and soul; soul and myth; soul, metaphor and fantasy; soul and spirit; soul-making; polytheistic psychology and religion; psychopathology; the practice of psychotherapy; Eros; and personality theory.


Archetypes: A Natural History of the Self, by Anthony Stevens. (Orig. title: Archetype. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982.) New York: W. W. Morrow, 1982; New York: Quill Paperback/Morrow, 1983p (324, incl. 15p. index, 8-p. bibl., 6-p. gloss.).

Stevens sees "no incongruity between Jung's archetypal hypothesis and the ethological approach to human psychology" and he supports "Jung's assertion that the archetype does not denote an inherited idea, but rather an inherited mode of functioning, [and is] biologically unimpeachable." After his discussion of archetypes in theory, he examines archetypes in practice (the family; the mother; the father; on the frustration of archetypal intent; personal identity and stages of life; archetypal masculine and feminine; and the archetypal energy of the shadow), concluding with a synthesis of his ideas.


The Family Unconscious: An "Invisible Bond", by E. Bruce Taub-Bynum. Wheaton, Ill., Madras, and London: Quest Books/Theosophical Publishing House, 1984p (230 + xvi, ind. 4-p. index, 15-p. ref. notes, 2-p. gloss., 2 illus.).

The family unconscious refers to Jung's concept of the collective unconscious as the inherited thought patterns which appear in dreams in the form of archetypes or symbols. Taub-Bynum presents this family network of feeling, images, and energy as a powerful system in a shared field of related phenomena. Drawing on research and practice in biofeedback, his central theme is to reveal the interconnectedness of shared feelings or dreams in the family unconscious as he discusses personally shared affect, energy, and "dreamscape," as well as clinical phenomena of psi material.


The Book of the Self. Person, Pretext, and Process, edited by Polly Young-Eisendrath and James A. Hall. New York and London: New York U. Press, 1987; 1988p (468 + xvi, incl. 6-p. index, 4 illus.).

Delivered at a conference on "Self" in 1983, these twenty-one papers by twenty-three authors represent a variety of disciplines in the humanities and provide various vantage points on the concept of the self. Major themes, as indicated in the subtitle, are self as person (self and necessity; self and consistency); self as pretext (self and meaning; self and death; self and gender); and self in process (self and experience; self and unity; self and terminology; self and transcendence). There are essays by Jungian analysts on the actions of the self (Fordham); Jacques Lacan, postmodern depth psychology and the birth of the self-reflexive subject (Paul Kugler); and the terminology of ego and self from Freud(ians) to Jung(ians) (Joseph Redfearn). The editors provide an introduction (on the study of self) and conclusion (on ways of speaking of self), stating that "The self is experienced as having and being certain kinds of states and images that are claimed as one's own in waking and dreaming."


C. G. Jung and the Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious, by Robin Robertson. New York: Peter Lang Publ., 1987 (American University Studies VIII-Psy., 7) (250 + xxi, incl. 10-p. index, 10-p. bibl., 9-p. foreword by Win Sternlicht).

Aiming to show that Jung's psychology is an expression of a "new paradigm, which believes thatthe world of matter and the world of the psyche are ultimately manifestations of a unitary cosmos," Robertson traces the development of ideas in the birth and death of the Renaissance ideal (discussing scientific method; Kant's legacy; experimental psychology; hypnosis; clinical psychology; and Freud). He then describes the psychology which Jung developed from its background to the model of the psyche and the shadow, anima/animus, Self, alchemy as a model of psychological development, and the mysterious unconscious. He concludes with a discussion of Gödel's proof, the roots of modern math, and self -referential systems, stating that Gödel's ideas support Jung's position.


Mytbos and Logos in the Thought of Carl Jung: The Theory of the Collective Unconscious in Scientific Perspective, by Walter A. Shelburne. Albany: State U. of New York Press, 1988 + p (180 + xi, incl. 8-p. index, 10-p. bibl., 21p. ref. notes).

Shelburne attempts to answer the question of how the scientific elements of Jung's writings can be reconciled with the extrascientific aspects. He begins with a reconstruction of Jung's views of the collective unconscious and then critiques the psychoanalytic as well as theological criticisms of the theory of archetypes and of Hillman's archetypal psychology. He discusses scientific evidence for the existence of archetypes and how theories fit in with modern evolutionary biology.


The Archetype of the Unconscious and the Transfiguration of Therapy, by Charles Poncé. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books, 1990 (120 pp.).


Demons of the Inner World: Understanding Our Hidden Complexes, by Alfred Ribi. Boston & London: Shambhala Publications, 1990p (231 + xi, incl. 7p. index, 9-p. bibl., 7 illus.).

This book serves as both a survey of the principles of Jungian psychology and a practical introduction to the complexes, which Ribi describes as contemporary counterparts of the demons and spirits that plagued the lives of ancient and medieval peoples.


The Symbol of the Dog in the Human Psyche: A Study of the Human-Dog Bond, by Eleanora M. Woloy. Wilmette, Ill.: Chiron Publications, 1990p (Chiron Monograph Series; vol. 4) (88 + xiv, incl. 2-p. index, 5-p. bibl., 13 illus., 3-p. foreword by James Hall).

Woloy examines the symbol of the dog from her own personal experience with her pets, including one who was in her office while she saw analysands, and from her study of the association of the dog with the Earth Goddess. She concludes with her understanding of a Jungian view of the archetypal nature of the human-dog bond, particularly of the feminine aspect of the connection, suggesting the human's instinctive religious need for kinship to nature.

Cross-Currents of Jungian Thought: An Annotated Bibliography