Cross Currents: Chapter 7

According to Jung, to be able to express the need of the soul to participate in the ritual of life and to be able to create a life that is meaningful, we need to be connected to the symbolic side of life. In contrast to a life that is too rational, a symbolic life expresses the facts of the unconscious and works to fulfill the desire of one's soul. More than seventy books comprise this subject category, plus sixteen that are cross referenced from other subjects. They have been arranged chronologically, with Jung's works listed first, followed by the works of others. Of the latter, half have been published since 1978.

Cross-Currents of Jungian Thought: An Annotated Bibliography
by Donald R. Dyer
(Shambhala Publications, 1991)

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7      Symbolic Life and Dreams

According to Jung, to be able to express the need of the soul to participate in the ritual of life and to be able to create a life that is meaningful, we need to be connected to the symbolic side of life. In contrast to a life that is too rational, a symbolic life expresses the facts of the unconscious and works to fulfill the desire of one's soul. Since dreams are the most frequent and universally accessible sources for investigating one's unconscious and inner functioning, the psychic life-process of an individual's total personality may be understood by the interpretation of dreams and their symbolic images.

More than seventy books comprise this subject category, plus sixteen that are cross referenced from other subjects. They have been arranged chronologically, with Jung's works listed first, followed by the works of others. Of the latter, half have been published since 1978.


Symbols of Transformation: An Analysis of the Prelude to a Case of Scbizophrenia, by C. G. Jung. (Ger.: Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido. Leipzig and Vienna: Deuticke Verlag, 1912.) (Orig. Eng]. title: Psychology of the Unconscious: A Study of the Transformation and Symbolism of the Libido. New York: Moffat, Yard, 1916; ed.2 1919; London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubnet, 1917-51; New York: Dodd Mead, 1925-71.) London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951; 1956; New York: Bollingen Foundation, 1956; New York: Harper & Row, 1962p; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, ed. 2 1967; 1976p (CW 5) (557+ xxix, incl. 59-p. index, 30-p. bibl., 131 illus.).

Written in his thirty-sixth year and rewritten at the age of seventy-five, this book is a landmark of where Jung's way diverged from the psychoanalytical school of Freud, whose framework of ideas about psychic phenomena was too narrow for Jung. The work is a very extensive commentary, with numerous symbolic illustrations, on Jung's practical analysis of the precursory stages of schizophrenia of a patient. The symptoms of the case provide the thread by which Jung is guided into the labyrinth of symbols from dreams, for which he interprets parallels by amplification from a great variety of sources. Jung deals primarily with two major dreams from the patient's complicated fantasy system. He then discusses at length the topics of the concept of libido; transformation of the libido; origin of the hero; symbols of the mother and of rebirth; the battle of deliverance from the mother; the dual mother; and sacrifice. His intricate study of symbolic parallels is drawn from mythology, religion, ethnology, art, and literature, as well as psychiatry.


The Secret of the Golden Flower: A Chinese Book of Life, translated and explained by Richard Wilhelm, with a foreword and commentary by C. G. Jung. (Ger.: Das Geheimnis der goldenen Blüte. Munich: Dorn, 1929.) London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1931; New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1931; New York: Harcourt Brace & World, rev. 1962p; New York: Harvest Books/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970p; New York: Causeway Books, 1975; London: Arkina, 1984p (149 + xvi, ind. 19 illus.).

Jung emphasizes that this text of a Taoist alchemical treatise, which was sent to him by Wilhelm in 1928, helped confirm his findings concerning the processes of the collective unconscious. Aiming to build a bridge of psychological understanding between East and West by emphasizing the similarities between psychic states and Taoist symbolism, Jung brings his developing theories of depth psychology to bear on Eastern philosophy, characterizing both the fundamental concepts of the Tao (or conscious way) and the circular movement of psychic development as being activated by the light and dark forces of the human desire for self-knowledge. He discusses the disintegration of consciousness by the unconscious; animus and anima; detachment of consciousness from entanglements of the world so that the unconscious is recognized as a codetermining factor along with consciousness; and fulfillment by evolution of a higher consciousness. Jung presents ten examples of European mandalas drawn by patients (and by himself) to illustrate the parallel between Eastern philosophy and the unconscious mental processes of the West.


C. G. Jung: The Visions Seminars, from the complete notes of Mary Foote. (Orig. Title: Interpretation of Visions: Notes on the Seminar in Analytical psychology given by Dr. C. G. Jung, Zurich, 1930-1934. 11 vols., mimeog.) Zurich: Spring Publications, 1976p in 2 vols.; Dallas: Spring Publications, 1983p (548 + iv, incl. 12-p. index, 28 illus.).

Drawing upon the visionary experiences of a woman client in her thirties to whom Jung introduced visioning (active imagination) as a therapeutic measure, Jung conducted an extended seminar in English following the 1928-30 seminar on dream analysis. His theme is the development of the transcendent function, which operates through dreams and visions to bring images from the unconscious to help in the reconciliation of opposites and in the ultimate synthesis of the individual's psychic processes. Among the topics which emerge are the independence of the unconscious; the shadow; projections; animus; yang and yin; tao and individuation; levels of consciousness; mandalas; astrological symbolism; enantiodromia (emergence of the unconscious opposite); the power of suffering; dismemberment; and the positive role of the Self.


Nietzsche's Zarathustra: Notes of the Seminar Given in 1934-1939 by C. G. Jung, edited by James L. Jarrett. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press (Bollingen Series XCIX:2), 1988 in 2 vols.; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1989 in 2 vols. (C. G. Jung Seminars, vol, 2) (v.1 = 764 + xxvii, incl. 13-p. editor's intro.; v.2 = pp. 765-1578 + vi, incl. 32-p. index).

Characterizing Thus Spake Zarathustra as a sort of collection of sermons in verse that depict the evolutionary incidents in Nietszche's life, Jung follows the same analytical technique in this seminar that he applied to the visions seminars. He interprets the events and inner experiences of Nietzsche's life as a series of manifestations of the unconscious (often of a visionary character). Nietzsche's eccentricity, brilliance, and decline into psychosis both fascinated and disturbed Jung in his youth when he lived in Basel (where Nietzsche had been a professor at the University of Basel during the 1870s) from 1879 to his graduation from medical training in 1900. Jung's initial curiosity about both Nietzsche's genius and his neurotic tendencies influenced his thought throughout his life.


Psychology and Alcbemy, by C. G. Jung. (Ger.: Psychologie und Alchemie. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1944.) New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Foundation), 1953; Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1953; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1954; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, ed.2 1968; 1980p; London and Henley-on- Hudson: Routledge & Kegan Paul, ed.2 1968; 1980p; 1989p; London: Ark, 1987p (CW 12) (571 + xxxiv, incl. 46-p. index, 38-p. bibl., 270 illus.).

Published first, though not as volume 1 of the Collected Works of Jung, this volume on psychology and alchemy represents a major portion of the material upon which Jung's later work is based. As a study of analogies between alchemy, psychological symbolism, and religious dogma, Jung relates the concepts of alchemy from its symbol formation, extending over some seventeen centuries, to the individuation process. Following an introduction to the religious and psychological problems of alchemy, he uses a large number of examples from more than seventy dreams of a young male patient to illustrate the connection between individual dream symbolism and medieval alchemy. He particularly emphasizes the symbolism of the mandala. The remaining half of the book deals with religious ideas in alchemy and includes discussions on the basic concepts of alchemy, the psychic nature of alchemical work, the work itself, the prima materia, the parallel between Christ and the philosopher's stone, and alchemical symbolism in the history of religion.


Mysterium Coniunctionis: An Inquiry into tbe Separation and Synthesis of Psychic Opposites in Alchemy, by C. G. Jung. (Ger.: Mysterium Coniunctionis: Untersuchung über die Trennung und Zusammensetzung der seelischen Gegensatze in der Alchemie, with the collaboration of Marie-Louise von Franz. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1955.) New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Series XX), 1963; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963; ed.2 1970; Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1963; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, ed.2 1970; 1977p (CW 14) (702 + xix, incl. 45-p. index, 45-p. bibl., 26 illus.).

Completed in his eighty-first year, Jung's last major work provides a final account of his lengthy and extensive researches on alchemy, synthesizing the symbolical significance of alchemy in terms of modern depth psychology. His comparative study of the problems of philosophical alchemy and the synthesis of opposites in the human psyche provides a way of viewing neurotic and psychotic processes. The symbolism of alchemy provides the psychology of the unconscious with a meaningful historical basis which can be rediscovered in dreams, wherein the entire alchemical procedure for uniting the opposites can represent the patient's individuation process. The two stages of the conjunction are, first, a dissociation of the personality caused by the ego coming to terms with its own shadow (in other words, knowledge of one's self) and then a reunion of spirit with the body, making real the knowledge of one's paradoxical wholeness and discovering the existence of a sense of inner security.


Man and His Symbols, by Carl G. Jung, M.-L. von Franz, Joseph L. Henderson, Jolande Jacobi, and Aniela Jaffé. Garden City, N.Y.: Windfall Books/ Doubleday, 1964; London: Aldus Books in connection with W. H. Allen/ Doubleday, 1964; New York: Dell, 1968p; London: Aldus Books/Jupiter Books, 1975p; London: Picador/Pan Books, 1978p (320, incl. 3-p. index, 5p. ref. notes, 500 + illus.).

Containing Jung's last work, completed when he was nearly eighty-six, these collective writings by himself and four of his close associates represents a richly illustrated, large-format book addressed to the general reader. Jung's essay, "Approaching the Unconscious"(which is the longest in the book), discusses the importance, function, and analysis of dreams; the problem of personality types; the archetype in dream symbolism; the soul; the role of symbols; and healing the split between the conscious mind and the unconscious. Von Franz describes the process of individuation (pattern of psychic growth; first approach of the unconscious; realization of the shadow; anima; animus; and Self). Henderson relates ancient myths and modern man (eternal symbols; heroes and hero makers; the archetype of initiation; Beauty and the Beast; Orpheus and the son of man; symbols of transcendence).Jaffé interprets symbolism in the visual arts (sacred symbols; stone and animal; symbol of the circle; modern painting as symbol; the secret soul of things; retreat from reality; union of opposites). Jacobi analyzes the symbols that evolved in an interesting and successful individual analysis.


Alchemical Studies, by C. G. Jung. New York: Bollingen Foundation, 1967; London: RoutIedge & Kegan Paul, 1968; 1983p; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1983p (CW 13) (444 + xiv, incl. 62-p. index, 28-p. bibl., 54 illus.).

Five essays, composed by Jung between 1929 and 1945 and revised later, are arranged chronologically in this collection in order to illustrate the researches in alchemy that preoccupied him during the last thirty years of his life. First is Jung's commentary on the ancient Taoist alchemical text The Secret of the Golden Flower, described above. His psychological interpretation (1937) of the visions of Zosimos, an alchemist and Gnostic of the third century A.D., reveals the alchemist as unconsciously projecting onto chemical substances an inner, psychic experience whose symbolism reflects the individuation process. In "Paracelsus as a Spiritual Phenomenon" (1941), Jung interprets Paracelsus as not only a medieval physician and Christian but also as an alchemical philosopher, a pioneer of chemical medicine and empirical psychology. In "The Spirit Mercurius" (1942), he surveys the Mercurius concept in alchemy, drawing on Grimm's fairy tale of the spirit in the bottle. In "The Philosophical Tree" (1945), he analyzes many representations of the tree symbol (illustrated by thirty-two paintings and drawings by patients) as a central symbol in alchemy.


Mandala Symbolism, by C. G. Jung. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1972p (121 + ix, incl. 11-p. index, 10- p. bibl., 85 illus.).

Consisting of three excerpts from the Collected Works (vol. 9, pt. 1), this collection opens with a concise summary of mandalas published in a popular Swiss magazine in 1955. In a long essay, "A Study in the Process of Individuation," which was revised and expanded from a 1933 lecture, Jung illustrates the process with a case study of a young woman, in which twenty-four mandala paintings are interpreted in detail as representations of material from her unconscious in the initial stages of individuation. His 1950 essay, "Concerning Mandala Symbolism," offers a selection of fifty-four mandala pictures, most of which were produced spontaneously by patients in the course of analysis.


Dreams, by C. G. Jung. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1974p; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982p; London: Ark Paperbacks, 1985p (337 + xix, incl. 2-p. index, 13-p. bibl., 107 illus.).

Reportedly having carefully analyzed about 2,000 dreams per year, Jung's devotion to and experience with dream material is reflected in all of his writings. Six excerpts from the Collected Works (vols. 4, 8, 12, and 16) are arranged under the headings of dreams and psychoanalysis (a 1909 essay on the analysis of dreams and a 1910 article on the significance of number dreams); dreams and psychic energy (a 1916 essay and a 1948 expansion of general aspects of dream psychology; and a 1945 article and a 1948 revision on the nature of dreams); the practical use of dream analysis (a 1931 lecture); and individual dream symbolism in relation to alchemy.


Psychology and the Occult, by C. G. Jung. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/ Bollingen, 1977p; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982p; London: Ark Paperbacks, 1987p (167 + x, incl. 9-p. bibl.).

Among the eight excerpts from the Collected Works (vols. 1, 8, and 18) on the subject of psychology and the occult, the longest (86 pp.) is Jung's 1902 doctoral dissertation, "On the Psychology and Pathology of So-called Occult Phenomena," which contains a detailed analysis of cases of severe hysteria, focusing particularly on a somnambulistic adolescent girl who professed to be a spiritualistic medium. Also included are a 1905 lecture on spiritualistic phenomena, a 1919 paper on the psychological foundations of belief in spirits, a 1934 article on soul and death, a 1948 article on psychology and spiritualism, and forewords to Moser's book on spooks (1956) and Jaffé's book on apparitions and precognition (1958), as well as a two-page article on the future of parapsychology (1960).




Dream Psychology, by Maurice Nicoll. London: Oxford U. Press, 1917; London: Oxford Medical Publications/Oxford U. Press and Hodder & Stoughton, ed.2 1920; York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1979p (194 + xv, incl. 4-p. index, 2-p. bibl.).

Expressing his debt to Jung, Nicoll aims to present a view of dreams that is not purely deterministic. Following his discussions of the psyche, the problem of the neurotic, and mental background, he focuses on compensation, overcompensation, undercompensation, fantasy, and rumor. He also examines the topics of the unconscious, complexes, extraversion and introversion, balance, regression, and responsibility.


The Hands of Children: An Introduction to Psycho-Chirology, by Julius Spier. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1944; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, ed.2 1955; New Delhi: Sagar Publications, 1983p (179 + xvi, incl. 11 -p. index, 8 7 figures, 23 handprints, 2-p. intro. by Jung).

In his introduction, Jung expresses his impression of Spier's work of chirology as a valuable contribution to psychology. After presenting the theoretical foundation and some general remarks about psycho-chirology, Spier examines in detail characteristics of the outer hand, the fingers, the position of the hand, the relationship of the fingers toward each other, the peculiarities of each finger, the significance of the right and left hands, the mounts, the main lines in the palm of the hand, and subsidiary lines and various other features of the inner hand. In this book he applies chirology to the hands of children, appending specimen prints with analyses. The second edition contains an appendix, by Herta Levi, on the mentally ill.


The Dream of Poliphilo: Tbe Soul in Love, related and interpreted by Linda Fierz David. (Ger.: Der Liebestraum des Poliphilo. Zurich: Rhein Verlag, 1947.) New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Series XXV), 1950; Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1950; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, rev. 1969; Dallas: Spring Publications, ed.2 1987p (Jungian Classics Series, 8) (133 + xv, incl. 34 illus., 3-p. foreword by Jung).

Applying methods of Jungian interpretation to the literary monument of Renaissance psychology, The Dream of Poliphilo (also known as The Strife of tbe Love Dream), which was ascribed to a Venetian monk, Fierz-David analyzes the story in terms of three superimposed strata: namely, the tradition of the courtly love of women, the humanistic conception of the revival of classical culture, and the alchemical conception of transmutation of matter. All three represent the religious principle of transformation or rebirth. Jung, in the foreword, opines that her undertaking is entirely successful and performed with intelligence and intuition; he credits his own labored research on the Dream many years before as aiding him greatly in putting him "on the track of the royal art," namely, alchemy.


Funk & Wagnalls Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology, and Legend, edited by Maria Leach and Jerome Fried. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1949-50, in 2 vols.; 1972, in 1 vol.; London: Mayflower, 1951; Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1951; London: New English Library, 1975; New York: Harper & Row, 1984p (1236 + xvii, incl. 40-p. supp. providing cross-ref. for 2405 countries, regions, culture areas, peoples, tribes, and ethnic groups).

This comprehensive dictionary is written by forty-two contributors and includes fifty-five survey articles, mostly on regional folklore. It contains information on folk heroes, culture heroes, tricksters, the folklore of animals, birds, plants, insects, Stones, gems, stars, dances, folk songs, ballads, festivals and rituals, food customs, games and children's rhymes, riddles, divination, witches, omens, magic charms and spells, demons, ogres, werewolves, vampires, and fairies, along with folk tales and motifs out of story, ballad, and song.


Timeless Documents of the Soul, by Helmuth Jacobsohn, Marie-Louise von Franz, and Siegmund Hurwitz. (Ger. Zeitlose Dokumente der Seele. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1952/Studien aus dem C. G. Jung-Institut, 111.) Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern U. Press,1968 (Studies in Jungian Thought) (263 + xii, incl. 23-p. index, 9-p. bibl.).

Psychological interpretations of three "timeless documents of the soul" reveal examples of the contribution of depth psychology toward understanding the attempts of the conscious personality to struggle with revelations from within the unconscious. Egyptologist Jacobsohn's interpretation of the dialogue of a world weary man of four thousand years ago dealing with his Ba (soul), center of his individuality and inner power, is that he feels the tragedy of helplessness and wrestles with the problem of suicide. Von Franz's analysis of the so-called "great dream" of young Descartes (c. 1620), an archetypal dream still of interest today in that it reveals the inadequacy of a purely rational view of the world, is that the archetype of Self was seeking to become integrated into his new thinking. Hurwitz's study of the psychological aspects of early Hasidic literature and in particular the Great Maggid (early 1700s) deals with the relating of consciousness and the unconscious, Sefiroth symbolism, symbolism of numbers and names, coniunctio mysticism, and the unconscious dream- prophecy.


The Forge and the Crucible: The Origins and Structure of Alchemy, by Mircea Eliade. (Fr.: Forgerons et Alchimistes. Paris: Ernest Flammarion, 1956.) London: Rider, 1962; New York: Harper & Row, 1962; New York: Torchbook/Harper & Row, 1971p; Chicago and London: Phoenix Book/U. of Chicago Press, ed.2 1978p (238, inci. 4-p. index, 34-p. appendixes on sources).

As a historian of religions, Eliade aims in this study to gain "an understanding of the behavior of primitive societies in relation to Matter and to following the spiritual adventures in which they become involved when they found themselves aware of their power to change the mode of being of substances." He examines the ideology and techniques of alchemy (dwelling at some length on the less well-known Chinese and Indian alchemy) in terms of both the experimental and mystical character of alchemical technique. He characterizes the alchemist as collaborating in the perfecting of matter while at the same tune securing perfection for himself; and he credits at length jung's contributions in making alchemy significant for modern culture.


Apparitions: An Archetypal Approach to Death Dreams and Ghosts, by Aniela Jaffé. (Ger.: Geistererscheinungen und Vorzeichen. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1957.) (Orig. title: Apparitions and Precognition: A Study from the Point of View of C. G. jung's Analytical Psychology. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1963.) Dallas: Spring Publications, 1979p (Jungian Classics Series, 1) (214, incl. 8-p. index, 4-p. foreword by Jung).

Drawing from more than 1,200 letters containing about 5,000 accounts of apparitions, premonitions, and prophetic dreams that were received in response to an inquiry by the editor of a popular Swiss fortnightly, Jaffé applies Jung's psychological findings in order to interpret such astonishing " wonder tales" from the unconscious, including synchronistic phenomena, ghosts, and the "nearness" of departed spirits.


Aurora Consurgens: A Document Attributed to Thomas Aquinas on the Problem of Opposites in Alchemy, edited, with a commentary, by Marie-Louise von Franz. (Ger.: Aurora Consurgens: Ein dem Thomas von Aquin zugeschriebenes Dokument der alcbemistischen Gegensatzproblematik (Part 111 of Mysterium Coniunctionis, by C. G. Jung). Zurich and Stuttgart: Rascher Verlag, 1957.) London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966; New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Series LXXVII), 1966 (555 + xv, 25-p. general index 6-p. index of Biblical references and parallels, 44-p. bibl.).

At Jung's request, von Franz prepared a psychological interpretation of this document as a companion work to jung's Mysterium Coniunctionis as it fit into the history of alchemy. Not concerned with the hypothesis that the text might represent the last words of St. Thomas Aquinas, she concludes that the author was not a practising alchemist but that, while undergoing unmistakably numinous experiences within himself, he intuitively articulated the inexpressible by using existing alchemical symbols. She examines the "flight of ideas" as methodically as though it were a dream, attempting to discover its meaning by the use of amplification and symbolic allusions.


A Dictionary of Symbols, by J. E. Cirlot. (Sp.: Diccionario de Simbolos dicionales. Barcelona: L. Miracle, 1958.) London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1962; ed.2 1972; 1983p; New York: Philosophical Library, 1962; ed.2 ,1971 (419 + lv, inci. 19-p. index, 13-p. bibi., 119 illus., 2-p. foreword by Herbert Read).

Expressing his debt to the works of Jung, Emma Jung, von Franz, Hillman, Liz Greene, Streatfeild, and others, Cirlot presents more than 800 entries in his dictionary of "traditional symbols," arranging them alphabetically and specifying the precise sources for each item. He draws from various fields of knowledge, using his background as an artist to clarify symbolism in all of its aspects. Many entries may be read as independent essays, as well as for use in dream analysis or for other purposes.


Persephone: A Study of Two Worlds, by D. Streatfeild. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1959; New York: Julian Press, 1959 (360 + v, incl. 11-p. indexes).

Expressing his "obvious dependence on the system of Jung," which makes human behavior intelligible, Streatfeild shows that the inner world is real and no less objective than the outer world; and he accepts the existence of entities of an unfamiliar nature, such as the collective unconscious and the archetypes. His study of "two worlds" was occasioned by reading an episode in Hadley Chases's No Orchids for Miss Blandish that was extraordinarily close to a passage in a work of fiction that he had written but never published. In the course of analyzing that book, he examines the problem of reality and likens it to Persephone's experience in the underworld.


Psyche and Death: Death-Demons in Folklore, Myths, and Modern Dreams, by Edgar Herzog. (Ger.: Psyche und Tod: Wandlungen des Todesbildes im Mytbos in den träumenheutiger Menschen. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1960/ Studien aus dem C. G. Jung-Institut, vol. 11.) London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1966; New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons for the C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, 1967; Dallas: Spring Publications, 1983p (Jungian Classics Series, 5) (224, incl. 10-p. indexes, 3-p. bibi.).

Crediting jung's psychology with providing a new method of working in ethnology, ethnic psychology, and mythology, Herzog presents the subject of death as an aspect of becoming, of transformation, by which the human condition transcends itself. He discusses first how humankind has always attempted to come to terms with death by means of images, drawing upon symbols from a wide range of animal and human forms. He then discusses dreams in relation to the repression and acceptance of death; killing; archaic forms of the death-demon; the kingdom of the dead, death, procreation, an rebirth; and dreams of death as an expression of the process of development.


The Visits of the Queen of Sheba, by Miguel Serrano. Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1960; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, ed.2 1972; New York: Harper & Row, 1973p; New York: Methuen, 1974 (61 + xi, incl. 8 illus., 1p. foreword/letter by Jung).

Considering Jung's comment that the unconscious presents itself to Serrano in its poetic aspect, resulting in an ongoing dream and in dreams within dreams, Serrano recounts this proliferating dream. The aesthetic nature of the work is reflected in the titles of the chapters- "The Great Mother"; "The River"; "The Story of the Moonstone"; "Parvati"; "The Visits of the Queen of Sheba"; "The Brother of Silence"; "Footsteps in the Sand"; "The Return of the Queen of Sheba"; "The Quest"; "The Servants"; "Melchizedek"; "The Lamb"; "The Bird of Paradise"; "The Mass"; "The White Horse"; and "The Last Flower."


Dictionary of Mythology, Folklore, and Symbols, by Gertrude Jobes. New York: Scarecrow Press, 1961 (2,241 in 3 vols., incl. 24-p. bibl., 482-p. index as vol. 3).

Collecting from a wide variety of sources, Jobes has compiled an extensive dictionary of mythology, folklore, and symbols, arranging the descriptions and the explanations for general items, such as animals and plants, in the following categories: universal and popular symbolism, dream significance, heraldic significance, occult significance, mythological and religious significance, word explanation, and cognates or comparisons.


The Archetypal Cat, by Patricia Dale-Green. (Orig. title: Cult of the Cat. London: William Heinemann, 1963; Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1963; London: Heinemann, 1970p; New York: Tower, repr. 1970p) Dallas: Spring Publications, ed.2 1983p (189 + v, incl. 7-p. index, 4-p. bibl., 31 illus.).

Stating her thesis that people need to adopt a realistic attitude toward the cat's paradoxical nature and "allow it to communicate its wisdom," Dale-Green contrasts images of the white cat (including deity, sun, moon, immortal, seer, healer, hunter mother, seed, virgin, talisman, charm, musician, servant, sacrifice) and of the black cat (including devourer, witch, familiar, devil, demon, vampire, bewitcher, traitor, trickster, fighter, victim). She also discusses the car as bridge between light and darkness and as psychopomp. Employing the traditional Jungian methodology of amplification, she uses a wide range of sources from folklore, fairy tales, legends, myths, religions, and dreams.


The Old Wise Woman: A Study in Active Imagination, by Rix Weaver. London: Vincent Stuart, 1964; New York: Putnam's/C. G. Jung Foundation, 1973 (174, incl. 4-p. bibl., 2-p. ref. notes, 4-p. gloss., 6 illus., 1-p. intro. by C. A. Meier). Boston: Shambhala, repr. 1991p.

Weaver presents an example of the use of the method of active imagination, providing a psychological commentary on a long myth that came to one of her analysands. She analyzes the successive stages of the woman's inner journey that were represented by small clay models of the central figures. Following discussions of some aspects of the technique of active imagination and of the individual nature of such, she interprets the myth, using clay modeling, through the stages of the old man, the old woman, the journey, tribulation, the attainment, and the jewel. She also includes an example of active imagination as used following a recurring dream.


The Understanding of Dreams; or, The Machinations of the Nigbt, by Raymond de Becker. (Fr.: Les Machinations de la nuit. Paris: Edition Planete, 1965.) London: George Allen & Unwin, 1968; New York: Hawthorn Books, 1968 (432, incl. 12-p index, 8-p bibi.).

Drawing on his own five-year self-analysis of dreams and on two years with a Jungian analyst during a period of vital, pressing personal problems, Becker acknowledges his debt to Freud and Jung and offers an examination of dreams as a kind of energy at work in the depths of individuals that motivates action. Beginning with the historical influence of dreams (religions, political, cultural, and in art and literature) and the analysis of dream incubation and induced dreams, he then discusses interpretation and theories (dream books; theories of dreams in pre- and para- Christian civilizations; the Christian attitude toward dreams; the physiological approach to dreams since the nineteenth century; the psychical structure of dreams; Freud versus Jung; self-analysis and the character of the interpreter), concluding with the subject of transcendence in dreams (dreams and the individuation process; dreams, space, and time; and dreams and degrees of reality).


Dreams: God's Forgotten Language, by John A. Sanford. (Ger.: Gottes vergessens Sprache. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1966/Studien aus dem C. G. Jung-Institut, vol. 13.) New York: J. B. Lippincott, 1968; New York: Crossroad Publications, 1982p; 1986p; San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1989p* (194 + xiv, inci. 4-p. index, 6-p. ref. notes).

Sanford's aim is to show the "extraordinary at work in the ordinary" by examining the relationship of dreams to religious experience, taking the point of view that the ego is purposively directed by dreams from a central authority in the psyche. He discusses dreams and visions in the Bible, the nature and structure of dreams, and the Christian view of the relationship between dreams and God, in which dreams represent the image of God within (the Self or psychic center) as well as transcendental reality. He interprets fifteen dreams to illustrate problems of the shadow and selfconfrontation, guilt and forgiveness, literal, shortsighted collective attitudes, and wholeness (as opposed to perfection).


The Meaning in Dreams and Dreaming.- The Jungian Viewpoint, by Maria F. Mahoney. Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press/Lyle Stuart, 1966p (256, incl. 13-p. index).

In presenting information about dreams and their interpretation according to Jung's principles, Mahoney provides an analytical treatment of the subject and offers advice on how to recognize and interpret dream images using amplification and integration. She devotes nearly half the book to a summary of Jung's psychology, discussing the semantics of the psyche, archetypes and symbols, the four functions, persona and shadow, projection, and anima and animus. Using more than fifty dreams as examples, she comments on the meanings of compensatory or complementary dreams, reductive dreams, reactive dreams, prospective dreams, somatic dreams, telepathic dreams, and archetypal dreams.


God, Dreams, and Revelation, by Morton T. Kelsey. (Orig. title: Dreams: The Dark Speech of the Spirit. New York: Doubleday, 1968.) Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, rev. 1974p (264 + x, inci. 8-p. bibl.).

Thanking Jungian analysts for first opening his mind and heart to the significance of dreams, Kelsey aims to show that the main strand of Christian tradition up to modern times views the dream as one way of God's speaking. He traces historical attitudes toward dreams, looking at the Hebrews, Greeks, and other ancient peoples and examines the dreams and visions of the first Christians and the dreams of the "victorious" Christian church. He also discusses how psychologists explore the dream and ends with the modern Christian interpretation of dreams.


The Fool and His Scepter: A Study of Clowns and Jesters and Tbeir Audiences, by William Willeford. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern U. Press, 1969 +p (265 + xxii, inci. 7-p. index, 21-p. ref. notes, 35 illus.).

Jungian analyst Willeford characterizes the symbol of the fool as a pervasive archetypal figure found throughout history in a variety of places, such as records of folk festivals and court jesters, the literature of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance, plays by Shakespeare and others, vaudeville and circus clown skits, and magazine cartoons. He examines the contexts of the settings in which fools appear and the psychological sources of individuals' responses to fools, such as hopes and fears and patterns of decorum, including the interactions between the fool-actor and the audience. Among the examples of this powerful imaginative form are Hamlet (the tragic dimension of folly), King Lear (the sovereign fool), and Buster Keaton (the cosmic dimension of folly).


Freud, Jung, and Occultism, by Nandor Fodor. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1971; New York: Lyle Stuart, 1972 (272 pp.).

In this work, Fodor focuses on Freud's and Jung's relationship to God and the devil, psychic participation, poltergeists, telepathy, the trauma of birth, religious conversion, audio clairvoyance, déjà vu, and the double. Other topics include chance, omens and synchronicity, premonitions of disaster, telling fortune and fate, the fatal influence of numbers, mystic participation, Jung and the archetypes, Freud and the archaic, the archetype in dreams, and the first time Jung died. Appended is a 1960 journal article on the psychic world of Jung (by Aniela Jaffé and a 1963 book review of Jung's autobiography (by Martin Ebon.)


Mandala, by José Argüelles and Miriam Argüelles. Berkeley, Calif. and London: Shambhala Publications, 1972; Boston and London: Shambhala Publications, 1985p (140, incl. 5-p. index, 5-p. bibl., 150+ illus., foreword by Chögyam Trungpa).

The Argüelleses credit the popular reintroduction of the mandala concept to Jung's rediscovery of it. The mandala, a depiction of symbols usually in the form of a circle, can be used as a therapeutic integrative art form that is created naturally by patients in their search for individuation. The authors' detailed study, illustrated by numerous mandala paintings, traces the mandala through numerous traditions and relates the technique to the life process. Topics are the universality of the mandala, the ritual of the mandala, and the mandala as a visual process, an art form, a key to symbolic systems, and a point of departure.


The Meaning and Significance of Dreams, by C. A. Meier, (Ger.: Die Empirie des Unbewussten. 1972.) Boston: Sigo Press, 1987; 1990p (The Psychology of C. G. Jung, vol. 2) (163 + xi, incl. 5-p. index, 11 -p. bibl., 8-p. ref. notes, 6 illus.).

Regretting that Jung did not provide an extensive and comprehensive treatment of the dream, Meier aims to do so, citing his own good fortune at receiving the notes used by Jung when he taught the subject at Zurich's Higher Technical University. Meier discusses basic aspects of Jung's methodology and approach to the structure, function, and symbolism of dreams; and he provides a history of dream research and ancient dream theories. He also interprets the meaning of the dream in the context of Jung's theory of the complex and, using a serles of six dreams, he describes the technique of analyzing dreams.


The Reluctant Prophet, by James Kirsch. Los Angeles: Sherbourne Press, 1973; distributed by Daimon Verlag, Einsiedeln, Switzerland (214, incl. 6-p. index).

Comparing nineteenth-century Orthodox Rabbi Wechsler of Bavaria to Melville and Nietzsche, Jungian analyst Kirsch relates how the reluctant prophet was so stirred by the numinous dreams that came to him between ages twenty nine and thirty-seven that he published in 1881 a brochure warning of the holocaust to come. Starting with a discussion of European anti-Semitism of the time, Wechsler's personality, and a diagnosis of the contemporary culture's sickness, Kirsch describes the twelve dreams, along with Wechsler's theory of dreams and its Jewish sources, and then interprets the dreams, including a "Christ" dream and two "Elijah" dreams. He analyzes the personal message of the dreams as a call for the rabbi to reevaluate his orthodox religions beliefs as a part of the process of individuation.


Dictionary of Symbols and Imagery, by Ad de Vries. Amsterdam and London: North Holland Publishing Co., 1974; ed.2 1976; Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 3rd printing, 1984 (515 + xiv).

Although the material chosen is restricted to Western symbols and imagery, de Vries has compiled an extensive selection with no fine distinction being made between symbols, in the limited sense, and allegories, metaphors, signs, types, and images. More than 2,500 items comprise the volume, including numerous symbolic names and places; and many symbols exhibit a great range of meanings. He supplies background information from a number of fields, showing the ambiguity of many symbols and preventing a too-limited approach to imagery. Often, several given meanings may apply simultaneously. There are some general entries, such as archetype, calendar, dream, elements, inversion, multiplicity, mystery, and riddle.


The Mythic Image, by Joseph Campbell. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press (Bollingen Series C), 1974; 1981p (552 + xiii, incl. 12-p. index, 10-p. ref. notes, 442 illus., incl. 7 rnaps).

Drawing upon the mythology ("the mysteries of being beyond thought") of the world's cultures during five millenia, Campbell brings an impressive wealth of visual forms to illustrate mythic themes. He argues that a door to mythology is opened through dreams and that myths, and dreams, arise from an inner world unknown to waking consciousness. He analyzes myth as an expression in symbolic form of the world as a dream and discusses the idea of a cosmic order in both folk traditions and the great world religions of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam.


The Dream-The Vision of the Night, by Max Zeller, edited by Janet O. Dallett. Los Angeles: Analytical Psychology Club of Los Angeles and the C. G. Jung Institute of Los Angeles, 1975; Boston: Sigo Press, ed.2, 1990 +p (183 + xvi, incl. 2- p. biography of Max Zeller, 1-p. foreword by James Kirsch).

For the occasion of Zeller's seventieth birthday in 1974, a collection of eighteen essays was assembled in his honor. Included are eight lectures and four articles from journals and books, as well as a remembrance of a Christmas Eve in Nazi Germany, Zeller's comments (from a meeting commemorating the tenth anniversary of jung's death) on the symbol of the well as the source where Jung and others started on the search, and two other previously unpublished essays (one on Jung's psychology and the religions quest; one on the case of a successful man, illustrated by seven dreams).


Waking Dreams, by Mary M. Watkins. New York: Interface Book/Gordon & Breach, 1976 (Psychic Studies Series); New York: Colophon Book/Harper & Row, 1977p; Dallas: Spring Publications, 1984p; 1986p (174 + xii, incl. 6-p. index, 13-p. bibi.).

Recognizing Jung as "the bridge between the past and the present," Watkins directs the reader's attention to the continual aliveness of the imaginal, her focus being the waking dream as the conscious experiencing of the imaginal. She deals with the topics of the half-dream state, the mythopoetic function in the early history of psychology, waking dreams in European psychotherapy, and imagery and imagination in American psychology. She also discusses the interpretation of movements in imaginal space, movements from and towards the imaginal in daily life, and imagining about imagining. She appends information on autogenic relaxation and media for waking dreams.


The Herder Symbol Dictionary, translated by Boris Matthews. (Ger.: Herder Lexikon: Symbol. Freiberg: Herder Verlag, 1978.) Wilmette, Ill.: Chiron Publications, 1986p (222 + vi, incl. 450 illus., pocket-size).

Containing more than a thousand entries with 450 illustrations of symbols from many cultures, particularly those familiar or close to Western European consciousness, this dictionary defines the concept of symbol quite broadly but does not include allegories or signs. Mythological figures, such as gods and heroes are not included, except for various monsters or animalhuman hybrids of antiquity. Although every symbolic meaning has psychological significance, mention of psychoanalytic interpretations of symbols appears only occasionally.


An Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Traditional Symbols, by J. C. Cooper. London: Thames & Hudson, 1978; 1979p; New York: Thames & Hudson, 1979; 1987p (208, incl. 5-p. bibl., 2-p. gloss. of foreign phrases, 210 illus.).

In presenting nearly 1,500 entries representing a great variety of symbols, Cooper provides not only the generalized or universally accepted interpretation of a symbol but also its various geographic and cultural applications. She demonstrates that symbolism is basic to the human mind and serves intellectual, emotional, and spiritual needs. Symbols from the Far East are especially well represented. The glossary contains fifty-nine terms, including most of the Latin phrases often used by Jung.

Understanding Dreams, by Mary Ann Mattoon. (Orig. title: Applied Dream Analysis: A Jungian Approach. Washington, D.C.: V. H. Winston/Scripta Technica Publishers, 1978.) Dallas: Spring Publications, rev. 1984p (248 + xv, incl. 8-p. index, 6-p. bibi., 2-p. foreword by Joseph Wheelwright),

Considering Jung's approach to dream interpretation to be the most comprehensive and generally applicable, Mattoon systematizes jung's theory, gives examples of every major point, and suggests supplementation and modification from material drawn from her own clinical work or that of other Jungian analysts. She discusses the nature of dreams; the dream context; individual amplifications; archetypal amplifications; the conscious situation of the dreamer; dream series; approaching the interpretation of dreams; objective and subjective characterization of drearn images; the compensatory function of dreams; non-compensatory dreams; dreams and the therapeutic process; childhood dreams; the dream interpretation; and verifying the dream interpretation.


Alchemical Active Imagination, by Marie-Louise von Franz. Irving, Tex.: Spring Publications, 1979p (Seminar Series, 14) (116 pp.).

In this transcript of a series of five lectures given at the Jung Institute of Zurich in 1969, von Franz first presents a short history of alchemy as viewed from the psychological standpoint and then interprets a specific text by Gerhard Dorn, one of the few introverted alchemists at the end of the sixteenth century who realized that alchemical symbolism and tradition implied a religious problem. She emphasizes that the introverted approach in alchemy shows that it is just as much an investigation of the collective unconscious as of matter and that many of the alchemists practised active imagination. Her topics include God-power in matter; the body as problem (redeeming the Christian shadow); mind and body; and medieval magic and modern synchronicity.


The Dream and the Underworld, by James Hillman. New York: Harper & Row, 1979; New York: Colophon Books/Harper & Row, 1979p; Magnolia, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1983 (243 + vi, incl. 9-p.index, 4-p. bibl., 27-p. ref. notes).

Aiming to explore a view of the dream different from the usual viewpoints, Hillman "re-visions" the dream in the light of myth, imagining dreams in relation to the soul and death. His psychology of dreams contains a sense of the underworld: he discusses death; Hades; the underground and the underworld; images and shadows; drearn persons; and the death metaphor. He presents the barriers to grasping the underworld as the psychic realm as being materialism, oppositionalism, and Christianism. He deals in the final section with dream romantics, the dream-ego, dreamwork, and dream material.


Alchemy: An Introduction to the Symbolism and the Psychology, by MarieLouise von Franz. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1980p (Studies in jungian Psychology by jungian Analysts, 5) (280, incl. 8-p. index, 83 illus.).

Designed in 1959 for trainees at the Jung Institute in Zurich, this series of nine lectures introduces the subject of alchemy so that Jung's own writings on alchemy can be better understood. Von Franz furnishes deep insights into what alchemists were searching for, and her own long experience of study of alchemy and grasp of Jung's theories provides an interpretive history of the psychological significance of alchemy from the Greek, Arabic, and European eras. She analyzes a great amount of material drawn from the alchemists' projection of unconscious images into matter, abundantly illustrated by old drawings and engravings and by a few modern paintings and drawings.


Alchemy: Tbe Philosopber's Stone, by Allison Coudert. London: Wildwood House, 1980p; Boulder, Colo.: Shambhala Publications, 1980p; Sydney: Bookwise Australia, 1980 (239, incl. 9-p. index, 9-p. bibl., 56 illus.).

Announcing that alchemy shares a vocabulary of symbols common to all myths and religions, Coudert envisions alchemists questing for wealth, spirituality, and eternal life, willing to go beyond science and religion in their search for perfection. She points out that their endeavors resulted in the beginnings of chemistry, and their visions became the source of psychological insights and surrealist art. Jung believed that the philosopher's stone as the goal of alchemy is a fitting image for the "Self," a unity formed from opposites. In chapter 6, Coudert goes into detail about Jung's discovery of the psychic nature of alchemy. Elsewhere she discusses the alchemists' credo, alchemical riddles, the elixir of the soul, and the secret art of alchemy.


Jungian-Senoi Dreamwork Manual, by Strephon Kaplan-Williams. Berkeley, Calif.: Journey Press, 1980p; ed.2 1980p; smaller format 1985p; 1989p* (319, inci. 1-p. index, 80 + illus.).

Bringing together Jung's approach to symbolism and the Malayan Senoi people's ritual of daily work with dreams, therapist Kaplan-Williams presents a manual in which he describes thirty-five dreamwork methods. He credits the sources for the book as the real dreams and dreamwork of everyday people struggling with their lives as well as his own personal dreamwork experience. His topics include reflections on types of dreams; the functions of dreams; seven basic archetypes (Self, Feminine, Masculine, Heroic, Adversary, Death-Rebirth, and Journey); and the relationship of consciousness to healing.


A Memoir of Toni Wolff, by Irene Champernowne. San Francisco: C. G. Jung Institute of San Francisco, 1980p (56, incl. 15 illus., 4-p. foreword by Joseph L. Henderson).

In remembrance of her experience as an analysand of Toni Wolff in Zurich, Champernowne shares an account of deep visionary experiences which she has represented in paintings. She states that Jung quietly accepted her experience with sparse comment, "allowing it its inherent validity," and that Mrs. Jung felt the material to be important for women in general. Champernowne comments that she was even nearer Jung's inner wisdom when she was in analysis with Toni Wolff than when she was with Jung himself and that Wolff was Jung's inner companion- guide in his journey through the unconscious.


Encounters with the Soul: Active Imagination as Developed by C. G. Jung, by Barbara Hannah. Santa Monica: Sigo Press, 1981 +p (254 + vii, incl. 3p. bibl., 2-p. introduction by Marie-Louise von Franz).

Drawing on her many years of contact with Jung and particularly on his concept of active imagination, Hannah promotes its understanding as a powerful method of encountering the unconscious by illustrating, through historical and contemporary case studies, the steps, pitfalls, and successes of this therapeutic method. She comments on Jung's experiences and views and discusses the use of active imagination in confronting the unconscious, using as examples Jacob and Rachel in the Old Testament and Odysseus and Menelaus in the Odyssey. She describes and interprets three cases of contemporary active imagination, two dealing with midlife and the other with imminent death, as well as an ancient example, the "world-weary man," a medieval example, Hugh de St. Victor's conversation with his anima, and finally a recent example of the healing influence of active imagination in a case of neurosis. She concludes that all of these describe the eternal search for the inner Great Spirit.


The Dictionary of Classical Mythology: Symbols, Attributes, and Associations,by Robert E. Bell. Oxford and Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 1982* (390 + xi,incl. 16 illus.).

Limiting his scope to Greek and Roman mythology, with occasional references to Assyrian, Phoenician, Etruscan, and Egyptian mythology, Bell selects approximately a thousand subject headings under which the number of entries range from one to one hundred. He intends this as a topical dictionary to be used by historians, novelists, and poets.


Dictionary of Symbols, by Tom Chetwynd. London, Toronto, Sydney, and N.Y.: Paladin Book/Granada Books, 1982p (459 + xv, ind. 21-p. index, 75 illus.).

Most indebted to Jung and his followers (especially von Franz and Hillman) for explaining convincingly why symbols are of vital everyday concern, Chetwynd presents a reference work on psychology, myth, and folklore designed to complement others already in existence. His dictionary is for people who want to use symbols to explore and develop the resources of their own psyche. He follows a brief introduction on symbolism (the symbolic way; symbolic language; dreams; deprived or overwhelmed symbols; and comparative symbolism) with 265 subject entries.


Dreambody: The Body's Role in Revealing the Self, by Arnold Mindell. Santa Monica: Sigo Press, 1982 + p; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984p (219 + xii, incl. 11-p. index, 7-p. bibl., 52 illus., 2-p. intro. by Marie- Louise von Franz).

Combining his background in theoretical physics and his training in Jungian psychology, Mindell relates his interest in the interaction of psyche and matter to a personal illness that stimulated him to study the mystery of psycho-physical reality. He presents the concept of the dreambody first by surveying the relationships of the real body to the dreambody and discusses the image of the body in Western religion, medicine, and physics. He then looks at the dreambody in relation to vibrations and fields, dance, shamanism, clairvoyant vision, and the chakra system. Other topics include the dreambody in fairy tales, the dreambody and individuation, and working with the dreambody (working with fingers; inner pain; amplification; working on skin; dance; visionary surgery; the existential unconscious; acupressure; meditation; and dream interpretation).


The Knight: The Potentials of Active Imagination, by J. Marvin Spiegelman. Phoenix: Falcon Press, 1982P (87, inci. 1 -p. bibl., 11 illus.).

Taking a tale from his book on psycho-mythology (The Tree), Spiegelman combines the tale "The Adventures of the Knight" (56 pp.) with essays on Jung's method of active imagination and its development into Spiegelman's own "psycho-mythology" technique. He relates the active imagination method to potentially increased creativity, to development of the personality, and to the art of self-healing.


Dreams: Discovering Your Inner Teacher, by Clyde H. Reid. Minneapolis: Winston Seabury Press, 1983p (108 +xi, incl. 2-p. bibl., 2-p. journal form, 2-p. foreword by Edith Wallace).

Reid provides an introduction to the art of interpreting dreams, the "inner teacher," and learning to listen to one's own inner wisdom. He discusses how to "unlock" one's dreams, turn dreams upside down, and pursue dreams, and he comments on dreams and the inner teacher, dreamsharing groups, and the relationship between symbols and archetypes. He also provides a form for keeping a dream journal.


Jungian Dream Interpretation: A Handbook of Tbeory and Practice, by James A. Hall. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1983p (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 13) (127, incl. 6-p. index, 2-p. ref. notes, 2-p. gloss. of Jungian terms).

Using basic principles of Jungian psychology, Hall presents practical advice on dream interpretation illustrated by many clinical examples. In addition to discussing Jung's model of the psyche, the nature of dreaming, and the Jungian approach to dreams, he analyzes dreams as diagnostic tools and explores the question of technique. Other topics include ego-images and complexes in dreams, common dream motifs, the dream framework (such as synchronicity), symbolism in alchemy, and dreams related to the individuation process of the dreamer.


Working the Soul: Reflections on Jungian Psychology, by Charles Poncé. Orig. title: Papers Toward a Radical Metapbysics: Alchemy. Berkeley, lalif.North Atlantic Books, 1983 +p.) Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books, 1988p (130, inc]. 6-p. index, 7 illus.).

Gathering six of his essays on alchemy written over a period of ten years, Poncé writes sometimes from a psychological perspective, other times from a mythological or metaphysical perspective, hoping that alchemy might be the key to the "new metaphysic." His essays deal with "praise of Bombast" (the early 16th-century Swiss physician and alchemist Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, known as Paracelsus); Paracelsus and the wound as means of transformation; Saturn and the art of seeing the nature of limitation and frustration; Genesis as an alchemical allegory; woman, the feminine, and alchemy; and the androgyne as the uniting of opposites.


On Dreams and Deatb: A Jungian Interpretation, by Marie-Louise von Franz.(Ger.: Traum und Tod. Munich: Këîsel Verlag, 1984.) Boston and London: Shambhala Publications, 1986; 1987p (193 + xvi, incl. 11-p. index, 8-p. bibl., 15-p. ref. notes, 13 illus.).

Dealing primarily with what the unconscious, as perceived through one's instincts and dreams, says about the fact of impending death, von Franz examines the manner in which nature, through dreams, prepares one for death. She discusses present-day death experiences and death dreams, as well as the symbolism of death and resurrection in Western tradition, using basic concepts of jung's psychology as they apply to the second half of life and to death. Her analysis draws upon a wide range of material from mythology, alchemical traditions, religious and cultural precepts related to death, modern physics, and some aspects of parapsychology.


Symbols of Transformation in Dreams, by Jean Dalby Clift and Wallace B. Clift. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1984; 1986p (155 + xi, incl. 3-p. index, 1-p. bibl., 3-p. ref. notes).

Working with jung's insights into the meaning of life and of dreams, the authors use them as a basis for understanding their own spiritual journey within the Christian tradition. Following brief examinations of the nature of dreams, the unconscious, and symbolic language, they make more detailed analyses of such motifs of transformation as the persona, the shadow, the anima and animus, snakes, the trickster, and death and rebirth. They use many examples of dreams, including a number of their own.


Dreams: Night Language of the Soul, by Phoebe McDonald. Baton Rouge, La.: Mosaic Books, 1985; New York: Continuum, 1987p (233 + viii, incl. 5-p. index, 2-p. bibl.).

Based on McDonald's thirty years'of counseling experience, as well as her study of Freud and Jung, this book focuses on the symbolic language of dream messages from the psyche, emphasizing Jung's attention to the dream's purpose of indicating psychic growth potential. Following a summary of the interpretation of dreams, with examples, she discusses the mechanisms of the unconscious; aspects of the inner self; people in dreams; the body in dreams; sexual symbols; birth and death symbols; dreams for emotional growth; animals in dreams; structure, places, and natural elements in dreams; children's dreams; archetypal and guidance dreams; and reincarnation.


River's Way: The Process Science of tbe Dreambody, by Arnold Mindell. London and Bostonz Routiedge & Kegan Paul, 1985 +p (167 + viii, incl. 12-p. index, 5-p. bibl., 8 p. ref. notes, 10 illusj.

Taking Jung's empiricism and his attitude toward dreamwork as a model, Mindell explains his own many-channeled process science that rests on Jung's teleological view of the collective unconscious as well as gestalt-oriented process work, Buddhist meditation, electronic communication theory, and the phenomenological attitude of theoretical physics. Starting with an elaboration of process science and channels (body; relationship; world), he then discusses the origins of some of his concepts, such as channels in Taoism, patterns in the I Ching, and the alchemical opus.


The World Was Flooded with Ligbt: A Mystical Experience Remembered, by Genevieve W. Foster. Pittsburgh: U. of Pittsburgh Press, 1985(202 + xiii, incl. 6-p. index, 10-p. bibl.).

Foster's account of a mystical vision from almost forty years ago and her interpretations of the continuing place of that experience in her life reveal her Jungian outlook and interest in depth psychology. She provides an intimate description of the effects of the vision on her life and of the peculiar attitude placed on visionary experiences by modern culture. Her essay is accompanied by a 97-page commentary on mystical experience in the modern world, contributed by anthropologist David Hufford, who examines the present state of knowledge about mystical experience in general and discusses Foster's experience in particular, illustrated by examples of the mystical experiences of others.


Tbe Dream: Four Tbousand Years of Tbeory and Practice; A Critical, Descriptive, and Encyclopedic Bibliography, by Nancy Parsifal-Charles. West Cornwall, Conn.: Locust Hill Press, 1986 in 2 vols. (576 + vi, incl. 39-p. indexes of narnes and subjects).

Containing more than seven hundred books and monographs in English and other European languages, Parsifal- Charles's detailed, critical, and descriptive bibliography provides a comprehensive body of knowledge relating the many approaches to dreams and dream interpretation. She includes ancient and classical dream-work, as well as significant contributions from the Middle East and Asia, along with dream interpretation practiced by tribal peoples. Also included are theories of dream interpretation in Freudian and Jungian psychology and sources of recent experimental research on dreaming.


The Inner Reaches of Outer Space: Metaphor as Myth and Religion, by Joseph Campbell. New York: Alfred van der Marck Editions, 1986; San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1988 +p (155, incl. 5-p. ref. notes, 17 illus.).

Consisting of lectures given at the San Francisco Jung Institute between 1981 and 1984, Campbell's book discusses metaphor as fact and fact as metaphor; metaphors of psychological transformation; threshold figures; the metaphorical journey; and metaphorical identification. Citing Jung's analyses of universal ideas as the most insightful and illuminating, Campbell states that the imagery of a mythology is metaphorical of the psychological posture of the people to whom it pertains, as that of a dream is metaphorical of the psychology of its dreamer.)


Invisible Guests: Tbe Development of Imaginal Dialogues, by Mary M. Watkins. Hillsdale, N.J.: Analytic Press, 1986; Boston: Sigo Press, 1990 +p (207 + x, incl. 8-p. index, 16-p. bibl., 9-p. ref. notes).

"Invisible guests" are those involved in "imaginal dialogues." Their function and lines of development form the theme of Watkins' contribution. Following her discussion and critical analysis of various theorists' points of view on the nature, functions, and development of imaginal dialogues, she employs the help of depth psychology, anthropology, religion, and the accounts of novelists and dramatists to reconceive a developmental theory of imaginal dialogues. She ends by presenting some of the therapeutic implications of the approach presented, including a case history told from the points of view of each of the characters.


A Little Course in Dreams, by Robert Bosnak. (Dutch: Kleine droomcursus. Rotterdam: Lemniscaat, 1986.) Boston and Shaftesbury: Shambhala Publications, 1988p (121 + ix, incl. 1-p. bibl., 1-p. foreword by Denise Levertov).

Using his own personal journey in the world of dreaming as well as dreams of patients and students, Bosnak illustrates strategies and exercises for studying dreams. He provides advice on memory exercises for remembering and recording dreams, how to listen to dreams and discover underlying themes by studying a series of dreams, and how to work on dreams alone or in pairs or groups. He analyzes a dream text and concludes with advice on using the techniques of amplification and active imagination.


Symbolism: A Comprebensive Dictionary, compiled by Steven Olderr. Jefferson, N.C. and London: McFarland Publishers, 1986 (153 + vi).

Stating that the purpose of the dictionary is to make the artist's or the author's meaning clear, compiler Olderr presents 6,115 ancient to modern terms of general symbolism and of specialized meaning categorized as allusion, association, attribute, emblem, or symbol. Terms are selected from literature, art, religion, the Bible, mythology, folklore, flower language, astrology, numerology, alchemy, and heraldry.


Dream Life, Wake Life: Tbe Human Condition through Dreams, by Gordon G. Globus. Albany: State U. of New York Press, 1987 +p (SUNY Series in Transpersonal Psychology) (203 + x, incl. 7-p. indexes, 8-p. bibl., 7-p. ref. notes).

Expressing his main concern with dreaming and the dream as "opening a window on the waking human condition," Globus first examines Freud's psychoanalytic interpretation of dreams, followed by discussions on dream phenomenology, the cognitive approach to dreaming, transpersonal psychology, and existentialim. He devotes chapter 5 ("The Dream as Oracle") to a discussion of dreaming from a Jungian transpersonal viewpoint, in which he characterizes the dream as potentially an oracle, expressing wisdom, rather than raw wish.


The Dream Story, by Donald Broadribb. Nedlands, Australia: Cygnet Books, 1987p; Toronto: Inner City Books, 1990p (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 44) (238 + xiv, ind. 2-p. index of dreams).

Stressing the point that dreams mean something valuable for self-knowledge, analyst Broadribb bases his goal of learning to understand the language of dreams on first-hand research, from which eighty-five dreams are given verbatim as related to him by the dreamer. He begins with the story each dream-drama tells, and follows by examining the people in the dreams, the nature and use of symbolism, and the purpose of the dream. He also discusses nightmares, sex in dreams, and a series of ten dreams that illustrate the cumulative effect of the discussion. He concludes with an evaluation of the dream discussion group and an account of a discussion between a dreamer and an analyst working on a dream. Appended are eleven dreams (along with explanatory material) for the reader to interpret.


Dreams and the Search for Meaning, by Peter O'Connor. New York and Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1987p* (247 + xiii, incl. 6-p. index, 10-p. bibl. notes).

Influenced by the writings of Jung and, in particular, Hillman, O'Connor is basically concerned with how to use a dream to approach the unconscious, rather than how to interpret the dream. His interest is in the restoration of this realm of imagination, and he seeks to interpret dreams using active imagination rather than rationality. Topics discussed include a history of dreams; Freud and Jung on dreams; the persona, shadow, animus, and anima in dreams; and archetypal dreams. He offers practical suggestions for keeping a dream diary.


Psyche Speaks: A Jungian Approach to Self and World, by Russell A. Lockhart. Wilmette, Ill.: Chiron Publications, 1987 +p*(Chiron Monograph Series, vol. 1) (130 + xi, incl. 8-p. index, 4-p. bibl., 8-p. ref. notes, 2 illus.).

This book consists of three lectures given in 1982 to inaugurate the C. G. Jung Lectures at New York's C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology. Lockhart expresses concern about nurturing psychic development and learning to listen to the psyche in our overlooked and undervalued daily life; and he emphasizes that the psyche can be heard through dreams, visions, synchronicities, and psychopathologies of everyday life. He comments on wandering in the labyrinth of "inner and outer as threads of one weaving", and says that one needs to be cautious of the tendency to listen so quickly with the mind that we forger to hear with the ear when psyche speaks.


The Way of the Dream, by Marie-Louise von Franz in conversation with Fraser Boa. Toronto: Windrose Films, 1987 (361 + xix, incl. 9-p. index).

In this work drawn from the documentary series The Way of the Dream (twenty half hour films), producer-director and Jungian analyst Boa presents an easily accessible, in depth guide to analytical psychology and Jungian dream analysis by von Franz, -Jungs foremost living successor,- based on her own study of more than 65,000 dreams. Boa has grouped the twenty chapters into seven parts: an introduction, the basic psychology of Jung, the dreams of our culture, the psychology of men, the psychology of women, relationship, and the self. Texts of more than seventy-five dreams are quoted, of which twenty-seven are interpreted by von Franz.


Visions of the Night: A Study of Jewish Dream Interpretation, by Joel Covitz. Boston & London: Shambhala Publications, 1990p (149 + xii).

Covitz, a Jungian analyst and rabbi, examines the Jewish literature for insights into the nature of dreams that can illuminate the practice of dreamwork in psychotherapy. The book includes a translation of a sixteenth century Hebrew text, "The Interpretation of Dreams," by Rabbi Solomon Almoli.


Wisdom of the Heart: Working with Women's Dreams, by Karen A. Signell. New York: Bantam Books, 1990p (325 + xxv, inci. 11 -p. index, 7-p. bibl., 4-p. ref. notes, 4 p. foreword by Riane Eisler).

Jungian analyst Signell uses eighty-four dreams to illustrate her view of dreams as a source of feminine knowledge and a way to cultivate imagination and gain confidence in one's own intuition. She discusses finding the inner guide (the Self), dealing with aggression, recognizing negative and positive qualities of the shadow, relationships, and sexual issues.