Cross Currents: Chapter 10

The subject of creativity and Jung's psychology relates mainly to the creative power of the unconscious as the very source of the creative impulse, whose forms or patterns reflect a tremendous, wordless kind of intuition striving for expression in art or literature that may range from the ineffably sublime to the perversely grotesque. More than ninety books are in this subject category, including eighteen that are cross-referenced from other subjects. More than one half of these have been published since 1980.

Cross-Currents of Jungian Thought: An Annotated Bibliography
by Donald R. Dyer
(Shambhala Publications, 1991)

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10      Creativity and Jung's Psychology

The subject of creativity and Jung's psychology relates mainly to the creative power of the unconscious as the very source of the creative impulse, whose forms or patterns reflect a tremendous, wordless kind of intuition striving for expression in art or literature that may range from the ineffably sublime to the perversely grotesque. Jung distinguishes between literary or artistic works that spring wholly from the author's or artist's intention to produce a particular result, which he labels the psychological mode of artistic creation, and those works that positively force themselves upon the creator who is overwhelmed by a flood of thoughts and images which he or she never intended to create, which he labels the visionary mode of artistic creation. He observes that the secret of creativeness is a transcendent problem that the psychologist cannot answer but can only describe and that the creative urge which finds its clearest expression is irrational, rooted in the immensity of the unconscious. More than ninety books are in this subject category, including eighteen that are cross-referenced from other subjects. More than one half of these have been published since 1980.

Jung: The Spirit in Man, Art, and Literature
Allan: Inscapes of the Child's World (See chapter 11, "Jungian Analysis")
Aronson: Psyche and Symbol in Shakespeare
Barnaby & D'Acierno (eds.): C. G. Jung and the Humanities
Bickman: American Romantic Psychology
Birkhduser: Light from the Darkness
Birkhduser-Oeri: The Mother: Archetypal Image in Fairy Tales
Blackmer: Acrobats of the Gods
Bolander: Assessing Personality through Tree Drawings
Branson: Howard Hawks: A Jungian Study
Brivic: Joyce between Freud and Jung
Brunner: Anima as Fate (See chapter 8, "Feminine and Masculine Psychology")
Chinen: In the Ever After
Cobb: Prospero's Island
Coursen: The Compensatory Psyche: A Jungian Approach to Shakespeare
Dieckmann: Twice-Told Tales
Donington: Wagner's Ring and Its Symbols
Edinger: Encounter with the Self
__. Goethe's Faust
__. The Living Psyche (See chapter 11, "Jungian Analysis")
__. Melville's Moby-Dick
Fritz (ed.): Perspectives on Creativity
Gallant: Blake and the Assimilation of Chaos
Godard: Mental Forms Creating
Hannah: Striving toward Wholeness (See chapter 6, "Human Development and Individuation")
Harding: Journey into Self (See chapter 6, "Human Development and Individuation")
Henke: The Ego King
Johnson: He: Understanding Masculine Psychology (See chapter 8, "Feminine and Masculine Psychology")
__. She: Understanding Feminine Psychology (See chapter 8, "Feminine and Masculine Psychology")
__. We: Understanding the Psychology of Romantic Love (See chapter 8, "Feminine and Masculine Psychology")
Jones: Jungian Psychology in Literary Analysis
Jung, E. & von Franz: The Grail Legend
Kawai: The Japanese Psyche
Keyes: Inwardjourney: Art as Therapy
Kirsch: Shakespeare's Royal Self
Knapp: Archetype, Architecture, and the Writer
__. Archetype, Dance, and the Writer
__. Dream and Image
__. A Jungian Approach to Literature
__. Machine, Metaphor, and the Writer
__. Music, Archetype, and the Writer
__. Theatre and Alchemy
__. Women in Twentieth-Century Literature
__. WordlImagelPsyche
Knipe: The Water of Life: A Jungian journey through Hawaiian Myth
Kugler: The Alchemy of Discourse
Lee: Death and Rebirth in Virgil's Arcadia
Leonard: Witness to the Fire (See chapter 11, "Jungian Analysis")
Luke: Dark Wood to White Rose
__. The Inner Story
Monk: The Smaller Infinity
Morley: Robertson Davies
Murr: Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra
Neumann: Amor and Psyche (See chapter 8, "Feminine and Masculine Psychology")
__. The Archetypal World of Henry Moore
__. Art and the Creative Unconscious
__. Creative Man
__. The Place of Creation
O'Neill: The Individuated Hobbit (See chapter 6, "Human Development and Individuation")
Philipson: Outline of a Jungian Aesthetics
Pratt: Archetypal Patterns in Women's Fiction
Raine: The Human Face of God (See chapter 9, "Religion and Jung's Psychology")
Read: The Forms of Things Unknown
__. Icon and Idea
Richards: The Hero's Quest for the Self
Roberts: Tales for Jung Folk
Robertson: Rosegarden and Labyrinth
Saliba: A Psychology of Fear
Schectman: The Step-Mother in Fairy Tales (See chapter 8, "Feminine and Masculine Psychology")
Seifert: Snow White
Singer: The Unholy Bible
Spiegelman: The Knight (See chapter 7, "Symbolic Life and Dreams")
__. The Nymphomaniac
__. The Quest
__. The Tree
Spignesi: Lyrical-Analysis
Stein: The Secret of the Black Chrysanthemum
Turner: A Jungian Psychoanalytic Interpretation of William Faulkner's As I Lay Dying
Ulanov & Ulanov: Cinderella and Her Sisters (See chapter 8, "Feminine and Masculine Psychology")
van Meurs: Jungian Literary Criticism
von Franz: Individuation in Fairy Tales (See chapter 6, "Human Development and Individuation")
__. An Introduction to the Interpretation of Fairy Tales
__. __. Patterns of Creativity Mirrored in Creation Myths
__. Problems of the Feminine in Fairy Tales (See chapter 8, "Feminine and Masculine Psychology")
__. The Psychological Meaning of Redemption Motifs in Fairy Tales
__. The Golden Ass of Apuleius
__. Shadow and Evil in Fairy Tales
Werblowsky: Lucifer and Prometheus: A Study of Milton's Satan
Westman: The Springs of Creativity (See chapter 9, "Religion and Jung's Psychology")
Whitman: Fairy Tales and the Kingdom of God
Willeford: The Fool and His Scepter (See chapter 7, "Symbolic Life and Dreams")
Wilson: The Nightingale and the Hawk
Witcutt: Blake: A Psychological Study
The Spirit in Man, Art, and Literature , by C. G. Jung. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1966*; 1971p*; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1967; London: Ark, 1984p* (CW 15) (160 + viii, incl. 8-p. index, 6-p. bibl.).

The theme underlying this collection of nine essays is the archetype of Spirit, the source of scientific and artistic creativity in those persons with qualities of personality who pioneered in realms as diverse as medicine, psychoanalysis, Oriental studies, the visual arts, and literature. All appeared as articles in journals, with some also presented as lectures or addresses, the longest being a lecture (1922) and article on the relation of analytical psychology to poetry and an article (1930) on psychology and literature. Others include memorial addresses on the life and work of physician-alchemist Paracelsus, noted Sinologist Richard Wilhelm, and Freud, along with a critical analysis of James Joyce's Ulysses and a psychological interpretation of Picasso.

Blake: A Psychological Study , by W. P. Witcutt. London: Hollis & Carter, 1946; Toronto: McClelland & Stuart, 1946; New York: Kennikat Press, reissue 1966; Folcroft, Penn.: Folcroft Library Editions, repr. 1974; Philadelphia: Richard West, repr. 1977 (127 pp.).

Using the "instrument of Jungian psychology" to provide a key for understanding the work of William Blake, Witcutt indicates a path through the Blakean jungle, a plan of the maze to interpret the problems of mythology and symbolism of the strangely named characters which make up "Prophetic Books." He points out that similar psychic patterns are to be found in the psyche of everyone, altered by the circumstances of each one's individuality and revealed in dreams. His topics include the nature of imagination; the supreme introvert; the four Zoas (daimons, or spirits); the birth of the functions; the anatomy of disintegration; conflict of the Zoas; reintegration; Blake's map of the psyche; and "an introvert looks at the world." The appendix contains an examination of the use of symbols in the Romantic poets, in which he describes Blake as an intuitive introvert and symbolist par excellence, living in a continual waking dream and experiencing, as did Shelley, archetypes appearing as visions.

Lucifer and Prometheus: A Study of Milton's Satan , by R. J. Zwi Werblowsky. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1952; New York: AMS Press, 1952; repr. 1977* (120 + xix, ind. 4-p. index, 2-p. bibl., 4-p. intro. by Jung).

Stating that Jung's analytical psychology insists on bringing the devil and the problem of shadow to the fore, Werblowsky studies one of the greatest and most towering Satans of literature, along with a study of Milton himself. He claims that Milton's Satan in fact contains Promethean elements and he contends that the archetypal similarities between the mythology of Satan and of Prometheus led to contaminations of which the strange Satan of Paradise Lost is the result. Werblowsky discusses the topics of the hero and the fool; pride and ambition; Satan as the antagonist of heaven's almighty king; sin; and obedience. Jung comments in the foreword that the SatanPrometheus parallel shows that Milton's devil stands for the essence of the individuation process.

Art and the Creative Unconscious: Four Essays , by Erich Neumann. (Ger.: Kunst und schbpferisches Unbewusste. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1954.) London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1959*; Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1959; New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Series LX1:1), 1959*; New York: Torchbooks/Harper & Row, 1961; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/ Bollingen, 1971 + p* (232, incl. 14-p. index, 7-p. bibl., 10 illus.).

Neumann holds the point of view that a part of the creative person's consciousness is always receptive to the unconscious, and he observes that the creative principle in art has achieved prominence in contemporary times because the symbol- creating collective forces of mythology and religious rites and festivals have lost most of their power. His four essays on this subject are on Leonardo da Vinci and the mother archetype (78 pp., including four illustrations of paintings by da Vinci), art and time (54 pp.), Marc Chagall (14 pp.), and creative man and transformation of consciousness (57 pp.).

Icon and Idea: The Function of Love in the Development of Human Consciousness , by Herbert Read. London: Faber & Faber, 1955; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U. Press, 1955; New York: Schocken Books, 1965p (with new intro.) (161, incl. 9-p. index, 12-p. ref. notes, 103 illus.).

Consisting of seven lectures given in 1953-54 at Harvard University, this book explores the theme that the symbols of art have a priority claim in that the image always precedes the idea in the development of human consciousness. Read states that ideas are manipulated by logic or scientific method but are come upon in the contemplation of images. He discusses the vital image; the discovery of beauty; symbols for the unknown; the human as the ideal; the illusion of the real; the frontiers of the self; and the constructive image. Read is a coeditor of Jung's Collected Works.

The Archetypal World of Henry Moore , by Erich Neumann. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1959; Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1959; New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Ser. LXVIII), 1959*; New York: Torchbooks/ Harper & Row, 1965p; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1984p* (216, incl. 2-p. bibl., 3-p. ref. notes, 107 illus.).

Neumann uses depth psychology to analyze the art of English sculptor Henry Moore (one of the greatest artists of the twentieth century), seeing Moore and his work not only as molded by his milieu and childhood but also as part of a collective psychic situation. He interprets the connection between Moore's artistic creation and the archetypal reality of the unconscious as evidence of a creative individual whose work revolves around the centrality of the definitive "Primordial Feminine," the reclining figure of mother and child.

The Forms of Things Unknown. Essays Towards an Aesthetic Philosophy , by Herbert Read. London: Faber & Faber, 1960; New York: Horizon Press, 1960; New York: Meridian Books/World Publishing Co., 1965p (248, incl. 1 0-p. index, 11 illus.).

In this book, Read discusses the controlling influence of such factors as image, symbol, myth, and icon in the development of human culture and the part played by the creative mind in the maintenance of aesthetic values. Contrasting this with the technological revolution of our time, Read emphasizes the need not to ignore the "subtle springs of creation." Among the fourteen essays (three of which are lectures and articles published elsewhere), three are specifically Jungian. They are on the creative process, the created form (illustrated by three of Henry Moore's sculptures), and the reclining image (Jung's concept of the archetypal Self in the individuation process). Others include a discussion of the limitation of a scientific philosophy; art as a symbolic language; psychoanalysis and the problem of aesthetic value from a Freudian viewpoint; art and the development of the personality; creative experience in poetry; the contemporary revolution in the visual arts; and the creative nature of humanism.

The Grail Legend , by Emma Jung and Marie-Louise von Franz. (Ger.: Die Graalslegend in psychologiscber Sicht . Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1960.) New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons for C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, 1970; London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1971; Boston: Sigo Press and London: Coventure, ed.2 1986* +p* (4S2, incl. 34-p. index, 17-p. bibl., 23 illus.).

Emma Jung and von Franz explore the remarkable blend of fairy tale and Christian legend that gives the Grail stories a peculiar character, reflecting not only fundamental human problems but also the dramatic psychic events which form the background of Christian culture. Among the symbols interpreted within the presentation of the story are the Grail as vessel, the sword and the lance, the Grail as stone, the table, the carving platter, and the two knives. Following the interpretation of the story, they discuss the topics of the Trinity, the figure of Adam, the figure of Merlin, and the solution of the Grail problem.

Outline of a Jungian Aesthetics , by Morris H. Philipson. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern U. Press, 1963 (214 + ix, incl. 2-p. index of proper names, 5-p. bibl.).

In his application of psychoanalytic thought to problems of art, Philipson suggests that Jung's reflections on the nature of symbols are based on his "image of man." He discusses the concept of symbol in Jung's psychology (the distinction between signs and symbols; symbols and psychic energy in the service of "wholeness"; the transcendent function of symbols; the collective unconscious; and the conditions of symbolic interpretation) and then presents an outline of a Jungian aesthetics (Jung's criticism of Freud's aesthetics; the work of art; creative energy; psychic significance of artworks and the creative process; and the literary artist). He ends with a critical analysis of Jungian psychology and aesthetics, symbolism, and epistemology.

Rosegarden and Labyrinth: A Study of Art Education , by Seonaid M. Robertson. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1963; Lewes: Gryphon, 1982p*; Dallas: Spring Publications, ed.2 1982p* (216 + xxx, incl. 6-p. index, 6-p. bibl., 106 illus., 2-p. foreword by Herbert Read in ed. 1, foreword by Peter Abbs in ed.2).

Convinced that the arts play an absolutely vital role in life, especially among young people who are seeking a new and more deeply rooted life in the context of an increasingly more vulnerable planet Earth, Robertson tells of her exploratory approach to teaching the visual arts. She describes her intuitive response to Jung's ideas, particularly his theories of symbols and archetypes, which she gained during years of study of psychology, and her study of Maud Bodkin's research on archetypal images in poetry. Following her account (amply illustrated) of experiences in the classroom and a commentary on gardens and labyrinths, she appends a brief summary of the arts of early history relevant to her study.

Wagner's Ring and its Symbols: The Music and the Myth , by Robert Donington. London: Faber & Faber, 1963; ed.2 1969 +p; ed.3 1974* +p*; Toronto: British Book Service, 1963; New York: St. Martins Press, 1963; ed.2 1969; ed.3 1974p* (342, incl. 13-p. index, 13-p. bibl.).

Indebted both to the fundamental discoveries of Freud's depth psychology and to the crucial amplification of them by Jung, music critic Donington offers fresh insights into certain aspects of Wagner's meaning in Der Ring des Nibelungen by analyzing the poetical and musical symbols that Wagner brought into artistic consciousness. Following an introductory discussion of the relations of myth and music, he interprets the prelude to Das Rbeingold and then the tetralogy of human dramas (Das Rheingold, Die Walkiire, Siegfried, and Götterddmmerung). Appended are some musical examples and a chart of selected leading motives.

The Nightingale and the Hawk: A Psychological Study of Keats' Ode . by Katherine M. Wilson. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1964; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1965 (157, incl. 2-p. index).

Starting with the premise that Keats's "Ode to a Nightingale" acts like a personality test, Wilson sees a "fantastic correspondence" between Keats and aspects of Jung's psychology. Although her interest is primarily literary, she uses Keats to illustrate what is relevant in Jung's psychology, explaining the deep layer of unconsciousness; archetypes, among which the archetype of the Self has a special place; archetypal imagery in poetry; the individuation process; anima and ego; and what of God the individual finds within one's self. She interprets an actual nightingale's song in Keats's experience as constellating the archetypal Self by lowering the threshold of consciousness into the deepest unconscious; and she interprets the hawk as an animal eagerness related to his loss of ego- interest in ambition, in other words, a time when the Self took the place of the ego. This led to a new attitude toward his vocation as a poet.

Shakespeare's Royal Self , by James Kirsch. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons for the C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, 1966; Toronto: Longmans Canada, 1966 (422 + xix, incl. 3-p. foreword by Gerhard Adler).

Kirsch aims to demonstrate that all great art springs from the collective unconscious. He focuses particularly on the work of Shakespeare, which Kirsch feels represents his "royal self." He employs three plays (Hamlet, a drama of haunted men; King Lear, a play of redemption; and Macbeth, a descent into hell and damnation) to study significant steps in Shakespeare's own inner development. In each of them the unconscious appears as a separate factor, sometimes as a dramatic figure or because the consciousness of the hero is for a time concentrated on the unconscious and characteristically changed by it. He analyzes each with great detail in order to show the whole process of individuation, treating each play in the same way that a dream is to be analyzed by giving full attention to each detail of its structure, sequence, and content.

An Introduction to the Interpretation of Fairy Tales , by Marie-Louise von Franz. New York: Spring Publications for the Analytical Psychology Club of New York, 1970p; Irving, Tex.: Spring Publications, repr. 1972p* (Seminar Series, 1) (160 + iv, ind. 5-p. index, 4-p. bibl., 3 illus.).

Based on seven lectures given in 1963 at the Jung Institute of Zurich, this work by von Franz presents fairy tales as the purest and simplest expression of the collective unconscious psychic processes, representing the archetypes in their most basic form. Before explaining the specific Jungian form of interpretation, she gives the history of the science of fairy tales and theories of different schools and distinguishes between fairy tales and myths and other archetypal stories. She then discusses the steps involved in a psychological interpretation of fairy tales and gives an example of a tale interpreted (a very simple Grimm's tale, "The Three Feathers"). She continues by analyzing motifs of stories related to Jung's concepts of the shadow ("Prince Ring," a Norwegian story); the challenge of the anima ("The Bewitched Princess" and parallel tales); the female shadow ("Shaggy- Top"); the powers of the animus ("Thrushbeard ... .. The Woman Who Became a Spider ... .. The Woman Who Married the Moon and the Kele"); and the motif of relationship ("The White Bride and the Black Bride").

The Golden Ass of Apuleius: The Liberation of the Feminine in Man , by Marie-Louise von Franz. (Orig. title: A Psychological Interpretation of The Golden Ass of Apuleius.) New York: Spring Publications for the Analytical Psychology Club of New York, 1970p; Dallas: Spring Publications, repr. 1980p. (Seminar Series, 3) (188 pp.).

Von Franz is convinced that Lucius Apuleius' novel, which was written in the second century A.D. and is the earliest Latin novel extant in its entirety, still has a message to bring and should be placed among such inspired works as Faust or The Divine Comedy . Her psychological interpretation of The Golden Ass , whose metamorphoses involve the hero's restoration to human shape with the aid of the goddess Isis, is concerned in particular with the problem of the incarnation of the feminine principle and of its "reconnection" in a patriarchal Christian universe.

The Unholy Bible: Blake, Jung and the Collective Unconscious , by June Singer. (Orig. subtitle: A Psychological Interpretation of William Blake. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons for the C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, 1970; New York: Harper & Row, 1972p; Boston: Sigo Press, 1986* + p * (272 + xx, incl. 4-p. index, 6-p. bibl., 13-p. ref. notes, 24 illus., 6-p. intro. by M. Esther Harding).

Drawing on her diploma thesis at the Jung Institute of Zurich, Singer uses Jungian ideas to interpret Blake and his writings. She translates Blake's intuitive grasp of the unconscious background of life into contemporary terms that reflect the struggle with the dual aspect of God in one's own contradictory experience. She interprets Blake's imagery of a marriage in The Marriage of Heaven and Hell as a reconciliation of body and spirit. She also examines his later prophetic writings and minor prophecies (The Book of Urizen, The Book of Ahania, The Book of Los, The Song of Los , and Europe ), as well as The Four Zoas , which are elaborations of mystical and metaphysical systems with complicated symbolism. She concludes with a look at Blake's poems on Milton and Jerusalem, revealing the depth and energy of his active imagination.

Patterns of Creativity Mirrored in Creation Myths , by Marie-Louise von Franz. New York: Spring Publications for the Analytical Psychology Club of New York, 1972p; Dallas: Spring Publications, 5th printing, 1986p* (Seminar Series, 6) (25 0, incl. 8-p. index, 11 illus.).

This book consists of twelve lectures given at the Jung Institute of Zurich during 1961-62. In it von Franz interprets psychological motifs that occur frequently in creation myths, which are different from other myths (for example, hero myths or fairy tales) in that they deal with the ultimate meaning of the origin of nature and human existence. Following a discussion of the nature of the creation myth, she examines the subjects of creation as awakening and creation by accident; creation from above and creation from below; the two-creator motif; Deus faber (God as the artisan); chaos and unconsciousness; subjective moods of the creator; the motif of germs and eggs; the two-fold and four-fold division of the universe; abortive attempts at creation; long chains of creation (generations, particles, and numbers); and creation renewed and reversed.

Psyche and Symbol in Shakespeare , by Alex Aronson. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana U. Press, 1972. (343 + vi, incl. 9-p. index, 6-p. bibl., 20-p. ref. notes).

Aronson believes that some of Jung's basic psychological concepts establish a close and meaningful connection between the act of dreaming and the act of literary creation. In relation to this, he sets out to reinforce the claim made by Dryden and Dr. Johnson that Shakespeare had "the largest and most comprehensive soul" and that his characters are "the genuine progeny of common humanity." Aronson illustrates the way in which the objective psyche (the collective unconscious) operates through Shakespeare, assuming the existence of a dualism in the human personality that is expressed frequently by symbols derived from light and darkness. He states that all drama originates in psychic polarity, in the conflicting natures of ego and Self, the conscious and the unconscious, and mask and face. He first examines the ego, defining the Shakespearean hero in terms of his conscious mind only, then the anima, which he sees as the shift from the prevalence of the conscious mind to the gradual domination by unconscious forces, and finally the Self that leads from conflict to resolution by the process of individuation, whose full integration no Shakespearean hero ever accomplishes.

Inward journey: Art as Therapy, by Margaret Frings Keyes. (Orig. subtitle: Art and Psychotherapy for You. Millbrae, Calif.: Celestial Arts, 1974.) La Salle, Ill.: Open Court, rev. 1983p; 1985p* (Reality of the Psyche Series, Vol. 111) (133 + viii, incl. 5-p. bibl., 40 illus.).

Keyes explores how psychological work can be enhanced by including the arts. She believes that artistic expression promotes healing through touching an integrative life principle that brings together the scattered and opposing parts of one's self. In her "maps and charts" of the creative process she develops graphic and plastic art techniques using painting, mandalas, sculpture, music, and myths as therapeutic strategies to understand hidden talents and desires. She discusses the uses of transactional analysis, the Gestalt approach, and Jungian depth psychology. Appended is a 9-page essay on active imagination by Marie-Louise von Franz.

Shadow and Evil in Fairy Tales , by Marie-Louise von Franz. Zurich: Spring Publications for the Analytical Psychology Club of New York, 1974p; Dallas: Spring Publications, 6th printing 1987p* (Seminar Series, 9) (284, incl. 13-p. index, 2 diagrams).

In this work based on fourteen lectures given at the Jung Institute of Zurich in 1957 and 1964, von Franz examines the problem of the shadow in fairy tales, the shadow being all that is within one's psyche which one does not know about, including partly personal and partly collective elements of the unconscious. Consideration of the shadow in fairy tales focuses on the collective or group shadow. The shadow of the collective can be particularly destructive because people, as the collective, support each other in their blindness. Von Franz interprets tales under the topics of the shadow (including "The Two Wanderers ... .. The Loyal and the Disloyal Friend ... .. Faithful John," "The Two Brothers," and "The Golden Children"); evil ("The Horse Mountain Ghost ... .. The Spear Legs"); possession by evil and meeting the powers of evil ("The Beautiful Wassilissa"); hot and cold evil (including "Getting Angry" and "Snow White and Rose Red"); and magical contests (including "The Black Magician Czar" and "The King's Son and the Devil's Daughter").

The Tree: A Jungian journey-Tales in Psycho-Mythology , by J. Marvin Spiegelman. Los Angeles: Phoenix House, 1974; Phoenix: Falcon Press, repr. 1982 +p* (464 + ix, incl. 1-p. bibl.).

In this first book of a trilogy on "psycho-mythology" (a literature in which an individual's fantasy reaches the collective unconscious, transcending the personal level, and straddles both Jung's "active imagination" method and art), Spiegelman presents a series of ten stories in which each narrator tells his or her individuation experiences. As told at The Tree of Life in Paradise, the ten people represent different religions or beliefs, namely, Gnosticism, Islam, Buddhism, atheism, paganism, kundalini yoga, Taoism, Christianity, Judaism, and alchemy.

Dark Wood to White Rose: A Study of Meanings in Dante's Divine Comedy , by Helen M. Luke. Pecos, N.M.: Dove Publications, 1975p* (162 + iv, incl. 2p. ref. notes, 2-p. gloss.).

Drawing her basic approach to the symbolism of Dante from Jung's psychology, Luke emphasizes that the Divine Comedy is both divine and human. She believes that it echoes the double nature of reality: that, without divinity there can be no conscious humanity, and without humanity the divine remains an abstraction. Reflecting on Dante's own life journey within the framework of the medieval theories of life and death, she interprets his story from the "dark wood" of lost innocence wandering in blindness and near despair to a vision of the heavenly white rose-from the Inferno , through the Purgatorio , to the Paradiso . She characterizes the journey as a tremendous symbolic account of the way of individuation.

Assessing Personality through Tree Drawings , by Karen Bolander. New York: Basic Books, 1977 (421 + xix, incl. 9-p. index, 10-p. bibl., 105 illus., 3-p. foreword by Joseph Di Leo).

Although characterizing her own clinical orientation as being fairly eclectic, Bolander states that she has been influenced by studies in Jungian analytical psychology. This is reflected both in certain underlying concepts and in her choice of language, particularly in the treatment of nonrational symbolism. Following her presentation of the origins of her study, she explains her methodology and approach to the interpretation of tree drawings as they reflect personality. She then makes sample analyses of three case histories and concludes with a discussion of the influences that are brought to bear on the drawings and the elements that are involved in the rendering of style.

Dream and Image , by Bettina L. Knapp. Troy, N.Y.: Whitson Publishing Co., 1977* (426 + xi, incl. 10-p. index, 14-p. bibl., 3-p. preface by Andr6e Chedid).

Drawing on Jung's concepts of the collective unconscious and archetypal imagery, Knapp evaluates the mythical, psychological, and philosophical factors in key dreams as narrated by French writers. She analyzes Descartes's "The Dreams Came from Above," Racine's dream and prophetic vision in Athaliah (from the seventeenth century), Diderot's D'Alembert's Dream, and Cazotte's dream initiation in The Devil in Love (from the eighteenth century). Nineteenth-century selections include Nodier's sacred marriage of sun and moon in The Crumb Fairy; Balzac's legend of the thinking man in Louis Lambert; Baudelaire's drama of the poetic process in "Parisian Dream"; Hugo's dark night of the soul in "What the Mouth of Darkness Says"; Huysmans's satanism and the male psyche in Down There; Rimbaud's dream of chaos in "After the Flood"; and Mallarm6's depersonalization process and the creative encounter in Igitur, or Elbebnon's Folly.

The Ego King: An Archetypal Approach to Elizabethan Political Thought and Shakespeare's Henry VI Plays , by James T. Henke. Salzburg: Institut fur Englische Sprache und Literatur, 1977p* (Jacobean Drama Studies, University of Salzburg) (100 + iv, incl. footnote refs.).

Henke applies the Jungian theory of a collective unconscious and collective archetypes to Shakespeare's Henry VI trilogy to reveal the basic psychic vision it contains. He examines how the same vision informs both the plays and the popular attitude toward kingship prevalent in that era, his goal being to reveal how the "collective unconscious" of Shakespeare's age blends with the material from his own unconscious to produce the plays. Following a discussion of archetypal criticism and Jung's theories, he explores archetypal theory and Elizabethan political thought. He looks at the relationship of archetype to Henry VI , in which he interprets a basic vision as projected on two complementary dramas (one describing political chaos, superimposed upon another describing a form of human insanity "with almost clinical accuracy").

The Mother: Archetypal Image in Fairy Tales , by Sibylle BirkhAuser-Oeri. (Get.: Die Mutter im Mirchen . Stuttgart: Adolf Bonz Verlag, 1977.) Toronto: Inner City Books, 1988p* (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 34) (172, incl. 5-p. index, 8-p. notes, 1-p. foreword by Marie-Louise von Franz).

Birkhduser-Oeri investigates the psychological meaning of mother figures in fairy tales, recognizing an almost endless variety of positive and negative images of the archetypal Earth Mother, which she classifies and interprets as typical recurring motifs. These include the terrible mother; the jealous stepmother; mothers that metamorphose into animals; the fire mother; the imprisoning sorceress; the indifferent mother; the terrible mother; mother as fate; the life-giving nature mother; the healing nature mother; the self-renewing mother; and the transforming mother. Beginning with an analysis of the mother archetype, she ends with an analysis of the Great Mother in our time.

Robertson Davies , by Patricia Morley. Agincourt, Ontario: Gage Educational Pubs., 1977 +p (Profiles in Canadian Drama Series) (74 + vii, incl. 3-p. index, 3-p. bibl., end-chap. ref. notes, 2-p. preface by Geraldine Anthony).

Characterizing Canadian writer Robertson Davies as "the entertainer" in his seventeen plays, Morley surveys the work of the romantic idealist and satirist who is equally preoccupied with middle- class Canadian pretensions and Jung's analytical psychology. Following brief chapters on Davies' works and his life, she discusses the recurring theme of his early drama as a state of cultural malnutrition that prevails in the land. She also analyzes the early plays. In the chapter "The Comedy Company of the Psyche" (as Davies labels Jung's theory of personality structure in his novel The Manticore , she analyzes the most Jungian of his plays, namely General Confession (an ingenious dramatization of Jung's psychology climaxed by the Jungian goal of personal integration), Question Time (which has the same theme of Selfknowledge and integration and uses four major archetypes of the collective unconscious to serve as principal actors), and Hunting Stuart (a "romance of heredity" pervaded by Jungian ideas of the collective unconscious and the psychic baggage of ancestry).

Blake and the Assimilation of Chaos , by Christine Gallant. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press, 1978 (198 + xi, ind. 2-p. index, 9-p. bibl.).

Gallant considers Jungian psychology to be particularly apt for understanding the Romantic poet William Blake, since she considers Jung himself in many ways a Neo-Romantic. She examines how Blake struggles with the question of how chaos can be assimilated into imaginative order in all of his works, recognizing chaos as a mythic principle of existence, and using art to understand what is happening to him psychologically as his consciousness tries to comprehend the unconscious without being overwhelmed by it. She analyzes The Four Zoas as a study of the experience of "divided existence," in which the exploration of the nature of the unconscious involves the cycle of generation, death, and regeneration to "unity." She interprets the poem Milton as an exploration of the personal and collective unconscious of Blake and Jerusalem as the "humanizing" of chaotic contents of the unconscious into consciousness by the impulse of the unifying archetype of the Self, concluding that the ultimate goal of a work of art is the balance of polarities in the psyche as it strives for individuation, evoking archetypal symbols.

Melville's Moby-Dick: A Jungian Commentary; An American Nekyia, by Edward F. Edinger. New York: New Directions Books, 1978 +p* (150, incl. 3-p. bibl., 4-p. gloss.).

Seeking not so much to understand Melville the man as to understand the psyche (especially the collective psyche) as exemplified by the genius of Melville's imagination, Edinger elucidates the psychological significance of the novel Moby Dick and thereby demonstrates analytical psychology's methods of dealing with symbolic forms and the basic orientation underlying its therapeutic approach. He interprets the classic adventure story of the wild pursuit of the white whale as a kind of negative dialogue with the Self, describing symbolically the stormy process of Melville's own experience of spiritual transition that led to the underworld of the unconscious and the corrective experience of the "defeat of the ego" by the redeeming encounter with the Self. He analyzes in detail the symbolism involved in Ishmael, Queequeg, Captain Ahab, the whale, and Fedallah.

Twice-Told Tales: The Psychological Use of Fairy Tales , by Hans Dieckmann. (Ger.: Gelebte Marchen . Berlin: Gerstenberg Verlag, 1978.) Wilmette, Ill.: Chiron Publications, 1986p* (139 + xiv, incl. 3-p. index, 1-p. index of fairy tales retold, 5-p. bibl., 6-p. foreword by Bruno Bettelheim).

Presenting this work as both a source of information for the layperson interested in the psychology of fairy tales and as a brief introduction for the physician and psychologist working analytically, Dieckmann analyzes the symbolic language of fairy tales for meaning in relation to personal development and self-understanding. He discusses the relationship of fairy tale and dream; the symbolic language of fairy tales; whether fairy tales are only for children; fairy tale motifs in dreams; one's favorite fairy tale from childhood; cruelty in fairy tales; and the fairy tale as a source of structure in the process of emotional development. His focus on fairy tale material arising from the analytic process is predominantly on adult patients and on processes in the unconscious that have not only negative-irrational effects but also creative effects on consciousness.

Creative Man: Five Essays , by Erich Neumann. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1979*; 1982p* (Bollingen Series LXI:2) (Essays of Erich Neumann, Vol. 2) (264 + xviii, incl. 6-p. index, 4 illus. by Marc Chagall, biographic note on Erich Neumann by Gerhard Adler).

Presented as a sequel to his book Art and the Creative Unconscious , this collection of five essays deals with the creative life and work of Franz Kafka, Marc Chagall, Georg Trakl, Freud, and Jung. The longest (110 pp.) is a depth psychology interpretation of Kafka's "The Trial" (written in 1933), which reflects all the basic ideas of analytical psychology (shadow, complex, archetype, anima, and Self). In the article on Chagall and the Bible, Neumann analyzes an extensive number of illustrations (105 etchings and 25 lithographs) that Chagall created during the decades of the European Holocaust, revealing the depth of inner feeling that Chagall maintained. The long essay on the poet TrakI examines his heroic struggle in "wringing" from his severely disturbed personality an output of poetic work that possesses universal validity. Neumann's short essay on Freud and the father image includes comments on Freud's genius and his "magnificent battle" with his unconscious Jewish problem of the Father archetype and the Father-God. His short eulogy on the eightieth birthday of Jung is highly laudatory, characterizing him as "the greatest psychologist of our time."

Jungian Psychology in Literary Analysis: A Demonstration Using T. S. Eliot's Poetry , by Joyce Meeks Jones. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1979p (52, incl. 4-p. bibl., 3-p. gloss.).

Writing primarily for college students, Jones illustrates the techniques involved in the psychological evaluation of a literary work, using what she calls the "individuational approach." In it she summarizes development stages rather than performing the "average Jungian analysis" of a literary work as a study of archetypal imagery. Following a brief presentation of the basic features of Jungian psychology, she describes what is involved in a typological approach to T. S. Eliot's poetry and she concludes with an interpretation of her theme of individuation as literary analysis, outlining the basic procedure as a tool for general analysis.

American Romantic Psychology: Emerson, Poe, Whitman, Dickinson, Melville , by Martin Bickman. (Orig. title: The Unsounded Centre: Jungian Studies in American Romanticism . Chapel Hill, N.C.: U. of North Carolina Press, 1980.) Dallas: Spring Publications, ed.2 1988p* (209 + xviii, incl. 5-p. index, 12-p. bibl., 14-p. ref. notes, new intro.).

Viewing American Romanticism as part of the progressive self-discovery of the psyche, Bickman perceives that such literature serves not only as illustrative material for this psychology but also illuminates the nature and origins of Jung's psychology. He uses Jung's theory of individuation as a basic form of Romantic thought in the process of unity from division to reintegration. Following a "methodological" discussion of the symbol in Jungian thought, he interprets Poe's Eureka , Emerson's "Plato," and Whitman's "Passage to India" as "voyages of the mind's return" and then devotes separate chapters to Poe ("To Helen" and four tales illustrating positive aspects of the anima); Emerson (an essay on "Experience" illustrating confrontation with the problem of alienation); Whitman ("Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking ... .. The Sleepers ... .. Chanting the Square Deific"); and Dickinson (a cluster of poems containing images of psychic transformation). Appended is a 19-page essay on "Melville and the Mind."

Joyce between Freud and Jung , by Sheldon R. Brivic. Port Washington, N.Y. and London: Kennikat Press, 1980* (National University Publications/Literary Criticism Series) (226, incl. 4-p. index, 6-p. ref. notes).

Brivic believes that Joyce and Jung had much in common as thinkers: both admired religious values without subscribing to a particular religion, and both were preoccupied by mythology and self- realization and the unconscious. Using depth psychology to trace Joyce's career as a "relentless spiral of transformation," Brivic begins by showing the origins of Joyce's obsessions from a Freudian perspective. He then attempts to connect the unconscious aspects of Joyce's personality to the meanings and values in consciousness, devoting a chapter to Joyce's system and Jung's psychological types. He concludes with an exploration of the value that Joyce found in life through his mythology.

Light from the Darkness: The Paintings of Peter Birkhauser , by Peter Birkhauser. (Bilingual German/English ed.: Licht aus dem Dunkel: Die Malerei von Peter Birkhauser .) Basel, Boston, and Stuttgart: Birkhauser Verlag, 1980 (139, incl. 38 plates/28 in color, 8-p. biography of Peter Birkhauser).

Believing that Jung may have shown the way leading out of the chaos in which art has lost itself, Swiss artist Birkhauser presents pictures that are pure products of his unconscious mind. He painted many of his more than 3,400 recorded dreams, visions of his inner world that shaped his life. Jungian analyst Marie-Louise von Franz provides short commentaries as hints to possible interpretations of 28 full-page oils and nine crayon/lithography reproductions. Also included is a chalk portrait of Jung. Contents of the pictures are reflected in the titles, among which are The World's Wound; Depression; The Inward Gaze; The Fourth Dimension; Imprisoned Power; The Hidden Power; Fire Gives Birth; The Outcast; Puer; The Magic Fish; At the Door; With Child; Anima with Crown of Light; The Observer; Bear at the Tree of Light; Window on Eternity; Lighting the Torch; The Fourfold Face; Duel; Constellation; and Birth from the Chrysalis. Also included is a 15-page essay on analytical psychology and the problems of art.

Perspectives on Creativity and the Unconscious : Proceedings of Jungian Conference Hosted by Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, 2-4 June, 1979, edited by Donald W. Fritz. Oxford, Ohio: Miami U. Press, 1980 (116, ind. 19 illus., 5p. intro. by editor/conference director Fritz).

These five papers on perspectives on creativity and the unconscious include an essay by Jungian analyst June Singer on creativity in the analytical psychology of Jung; an examination of Jung and modern art by Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Richard Howard; a personal view of creativity by architect Walter Netsch; a non-creative look at the creative process by painter and art critic Walter Darby Bannard; and an essay on new psychological approaches to creativity by psychiatrist Silvano Arieti.

The Psychological Meaning of Redemption Motifs in Fairy Tales , by MarieLouise von Franz. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1980p* (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 2) (124, incl. 5-p. index, 1 illus.).

In this book consisting of seven lectures delivered at the Jung Institute of Zurich in 1956, von Franz distinguishes between the Christian idea of redemption and the psychological meaning of redemption motifs in fairy tales in which one is cursed or bewitched and later redeemed through certain occurrences. She discusses motifs from various tales to show different types of curses that have important psychological meaning; a human being in a neurotic state might be compared to a bewitched person in which one particular structure of the psyche is damaged in its functioning and the whole is affected. She comments that such fairy tales do not dwell much on problems of the curse but on the method of redemption, which is relevant to therapeutic procedures and the healing process.

A Psychology of Fear: The Nightmare Formula of Edgar Allan Poe , by David Saliba. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 19 8 0 + p (267 + ix, incl. 11-p. index, 12-p. bibl., 28-p. end- chapter notes).

Drawing a parallel between Jung's theory of a "collective unconscious" and Poe's idea of "soul," Saliba considers a study of the development of Poe's art as a study in Poe's developing understanding of the human psyche, which cannot be understood fully in rational terms but only experienced through its images and symbols. He examines Poe's formula of fear by analyzing the psychology and mechanics of fear, the elements of the nightmare, and the nightmare as literary form and illustrates Poe's early development of the formula in the tales "Metzengerstein ... .. MS Found in a Bottle," and "Berenice" and his later achievement in "Ligeia ... .. The Fall of the House of Usher," and "The Pit and the Pendulum." He concludes with an interpretation of the philosophical and psychological implications of Poe's art.

Theatre and Alchemy , by Bettina L. Knapp. Detroit: Wayne State U. Press, 1980* (283 + xiii, ind. 9-p. index, 5-p. bibl., 3-p. foreword by Mircea Eliade).

Basing her approach on the relationship Jung suggested between psychology and alchemy, Knapp states that any play may be interpreted alchemically, that is to say, that it can be shown to pass through the alchemical phases of nigredo (blackening), albedo (whitening), and rubedo (reddening) that occur in the union of disparate parts into a harmony of opposites. As examples of the first stage (chaos, or experience of the collective unconscious), she interprets Strindberg's A Dream Play and de Ghelderode's Escurial . The second stage (washing, or consciousness) is represented by Claudel's Break of Noon , Yeats's The Only Jealousy of Emer , and Witkiericz's The Water Hen , and the third (union of opposites) by de l'Isle-Adam's Axël and Ansky's The Dybbuk . As examples of the world/spiritual/soul concept of alchemy, she analyzes a fourteenth-century Noh drama (Matsukaze) and a second- century B.C. Sanskrit play, Shakuntala , which is drawn from the Mahabharata . She concludes that the theatre may be viewed as operational alchemy in that the play allows one to reach beyond one's limited vision toward the Infinite, an instinctive activity within the psyche which cannot be explained rationally any more than can genius or talent.

Archetypal Patterns in Women's Fiction , by Annis Pratt with Barbara White, Andrea Lowenstein, and Mary W. Hyer. Bloomington: Indiana U. Press, 1981 + p; Brighton: Harvester Press, 1981 + p (211 + x, incl. 5-p. index, 17p. bibl. of women authors, 11 -p. ref. notes).

Pratt approaches women's fiction from an archetypal and analytic viewpoint (differentiating it from that of Jung, Harding, and Campbell), perceiving patterns both from the world shared by men and women and from a feminine self-expression very often at odds with the world. She draws from a wide range (more than 300 books) by women writers, mainly minor authors, of the past 300 years. She categorizes them according to the following types: novels of development (the clash between concepts of individual liberty and personal fulfillment and contradictory norms of chastity and social submission); novels of marriage and novels of social protest (enclosure in the patriarchy); novels of love between men and women (the quest for sexuality); novels of love and friendship between women and novels of singleness and solitude (Eros as expression of the Self); and novels of rebirth and transformation (female heroes in middle and old age). She closes with a chapter that connects these patterns with the Demeter/Kore and Ishtar/Tammuz myths, the Grail legends, and archetypal and ritual materials constituting the Craft of the Wise, or witchcraft.

A Jungian Psychoanalytic Interpretation of William Faulkner's As I Lay Dying , by Dixie M. Turner. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1981 +p (99 + viii, incl. 8-p. bibl., 3-p. gloss. of Jungian terms).

Using her conception of Jungian archetypes as collective entities that exist both in Faulkner's mind and in the mind of "Everyman," Turner aims to present a composite portrait of the total human experience by interpreting the novel As I Lay Dying (1930). She analyzes each member of the Bundren family (Addie, Anse, jewel, Darl, Dewey Dell, Cash, and Vardaman) in terms of the archetypal postulates of the Self, Persona, Shadow, Wise Man, Great Mother, Hero-Savior, and Child.

The Alchemy of Discourse: An Archetypal Approach to Language , by Paul K. Kugler. Lewisburg, Perm.: Bucknell U. Press, with London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1982* (Studies in Jungian Thought) (141, incl. 7-p. index, 11 -p. bibl.).

In proposing the concept of archetypal linguistics, Kugler aims to demonstrate that the individual is separated from the material world and initiated into a shared archetypal system of meaning-relations through the acquisition of language, which transfers matter into imagination. In hisexploration of the archetypal approach to language he discusses Jung's psycholinguistic research at Burgh6lzli Hospital and the relationship of dreams and language. He examines the paradigm shift from substance to relations in archetypal structures as evidenced in physics (Maxwell, Planck, and Einstein), linguistics (Ferdinand de Saussure), depth psychology (Jung), and anthropology (L6vi-Strauss). He also discusses the topics of archetypal linguistics and French structuralism, the language of the unconscious, the phonetic imagination, and the alchemy of discourse.

The Inner Story: Myth and Symbol in the Bible and Literature , by Helen M. Luke. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1982* (118 + viii).

Citing Jung's discovery of the life-giving wonder of the inner myth (or the story) behind his life following his confrontation with the powers of the unconscious, Luke claims that each individual's story, originating in the experience of inner darkness, can begin to be found in response to the great stories of the world. She explores myth and symbol in the Bible through interpretations of the stories of Saul and Jacob and also looks at an African tale, Euripides's The Bacchae (40S B.C.), Antoine de Saint-Exupery's The Little Prince (1943), Frodo's Mythril Coat in Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings (1966), and Shakespeare's King Lear (1608).

The Japanese Psyche: Major Motifs in the Fairy Tales of Japan , by Hayao Kawai. Uap.: Mikashibanashito Nihonjin no Kokoro. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten Publ., 1982.) Dallas: Spring Publications, 1988p* (234 + vi, incl. 1-p. bibl., 3-p. ref. notes, 9 illus.).

Jungian analyst Kawai compares Japanese consciousness with Western consciousness as illustrated by the tale "Faithful John" and concludes that the essence of Japanese fairy tales can be seen better through "female eyes" (looking at the world through eyes located in the unconscious depths, though qualified as "half-closed" eyes in order to avoid a contradiction with consciousness). He interprets tales that illustrate concepts of consciousness, the Great Mother, mother-daughter unity, the relationships of brother and sister and mother and son, nonhuman females, and happy marriages. The appendix consists of translations of "The Bush Warbler's Home"; a synopsis of "Faithful John"; "The Woman Who Eats Nothing"; "The Laughter of Oni"; "Three-eyes"; "White Bird Sister"; "Urashina Taro"; "Crane Wife"; "The Handless Maiden"; "Hyotoku"; and "The Charcoal Maker of Chojya."

The Smaller Infinity: The Jungian Self in the Novels of Robertson Davies , by Patricia Monk. Toronto, Buffalo, and London: University of Toronto Press, 1982* (214 + ix, incl. 8-p. index, 21-p. ref. notes).

Stating that all of the work of novelist Robertson Davies manifests his interest in and admiration for Jung, Monk focuses on Davies' own concentrated interest on the "mystery of human personality." Her title, taken from Jung's reference (in Seven Sermons to the Dead) to "the smaller or innermost infinity" of the microcosm, denotes an inner universe of the personality just as infinite as the outer universe. Starting with the history of Davies' affinity to Jungian thought, involving folklore, magic, religion, archetypes, literature, and the individuation theory, she then interprets his writings as giving concrete, creative form to the workings of the human psyche. Her analysis takes her from Davies' first book (Shakespeare's Boy Actors, 1939) through the Salterton trilogy (the conflict between illusion and psychic identity) to the Deptford trilogy (Fifth Business; The Manticore; World of Wonders, 1970-75). In all of these she sees Davies dealing with transcendent psychic reality and mundane physical reality, the movement toward self-understanding under analysis, and the exploration of good and evil.

Archetype, Dance, and the Writer , by Bettina L. Knapp. New York: Bethel, 1983p (176 + v, incl. 6-p. ref notes, preface by Werner H. Engel).

Knapp, employing a Jungian approach, explores the psychological, philosophical, and aesthetic implications of archetypal dance in literature. She examines the imagery and archetypes of dance episodes in the works of Melville (the sailors' dance on an archetypal sea journey in Moby-Dick); Baudelaire (the archetypal death dance in "Danse Macabre"); Flaubert (dance and the archetypal harlot, wife, and castrator from Travel Notes; Correspondence; Hirodias ; and Madame Bovary ); Wilde (the erotic dance archetype in Salome ); Nietzsche (dance and the Dionysian archetype in Thus Spake Zarathustra ; Strindberg (archetypal alienation and dance in The Dance of Death ); Yeats (archetypal vagina dentata dances in A Full Moon in March ); Valery (the Socratic archetypal dancer in "The Soul of the Dance" and "The Philosophy of Dance"); Bharata Natyam (archetypal body language in the Indian temple dance drama); and Zeami Motokiyo (dance and archetypal wandering in the Noh play Lady Han ).

Fairy Tales and the Kingdom of God , by Allen Whitman. Pecos, N.M.: Dove Press, 1983p (132, incl. 2-p. ref. notes, foreword by Morton Kelsey).

Interested in the Jungian approach to fairy tales, Whitman examines them as illuminators of the inner and outer truth of the Gospel of the Kingdom of God. 'He believes that fairy tales not only convey truth in folk art form but illuminate and bring a fresh perspective to the teaching about the Kingdom. First, he interprets the familiar tales of "Three Feathers ... .. Jack and the Beanstalk ... .. The Emperor's Clothes ... .. Rumpelstilkskin," "Snow White," "The Frog King," "The Spirit in the Bottle ... .. Hansel and Gretel," and "The Cobbler and the Tailor." He then discusses Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings and The Chronicles of Narnia by C. S. Lewis, examining their use of imaginative language and symbol. He concludes with a section about writing one's own fairy tale out of one's own depths.

Snow White: Life Almost Lost , by Theodor Seifert. (Ger.: Schneewittchen . Zurich: Kreuz Verlag, 1983.) Wilmette, Ill.: Chiron Publications, 1986p* (131 + ix, incl. 1-p. ref. notes).

Seifert characterizes the tale of Snow White as a life that was almost lost and likens its theme to the experience of persons in psychotherapy in which life seems to stand still and the person feels "as if dead." He poses the central question to which Snow White seeks and finds an answer as: "How do I win back the life I thought I had lost?" He analyzes the tale in twenty stages, including small, scarcely perceptible feelings (snowflakes), great conflict (drops of blood in the snow), self- condemnation for better or worse (mirror, mirror), the secret life of the soul (in the wild forest), hidden growth (with the dwarfs), between life and death (in the glass coffin), encounter, sacrifice, and treasure (the king's son comes into the forest), being rooted in one's own earth, and collective cold and heat.

Tales for Jung Folk: Original Fairytales for Persons of All Ages Dramatizing C. G. Jung's Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious , by Richard Roberts. San Anselmo, Calif.: Vernal Equinox Press, 1983 * + p* (101, incl. 12 illus.).

Drawing on the experience of dreams in the form of fairy tales, which he extended and completed by the process of active imagination, Roberts presents (in the order in which they came from the unconscious) six tales, whose inspiration occurs in what he calls the Dream Castle. He adds to each story an explanatory primer (with appropriate quotations from Jung), namely, archetypes and the unconscious for "The Dream Castle," the shadow for "Ruckus in the Well," the persona for "The Mask That Wore the Man," the Self for "The Seed's Secret," active imagination for "Travels with Mozart," and projection for "The Crystal People." Also included is a tale of "The Four Rings" (the four functions), which contains many conscious elements, such as riddles, in addition to active imagination.

A Jungian Approach to Literature, by Bettina L. Knapp. Carbondale and Edwardsville, Ill.: Southern Illinois U. Press, 1984* (402 + xvi, incl. 12-p. index, 5-p. bibl., 9-p. ref. notes).

Knapp explores the universal applicability of Jungian archetypal analysis and criticism by taking literary works out of their original and conventional contexts and relating them to "humankind in general." She studies the works of ten authors, probing "this eternally rich world" of the human psyche through the writings of creative geniuses of past centuries. She presents the life, times, literary structure, and archetypal analysis of each, starting with The Bacchae (405 B.C.) by Euripides and continuing with Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival (c. 1200), which involves the creation of the archetypal hero; three essays illustrating the individuation process by Montaigne; dramatic poems by Corneille; Elective Affinities (1809) by Goethe; Hymns to the Night (1800) by Novalis; The Master of Prayer (ego's exile from the Self and struggle to reintegrate) by Rabbi Nachman; At the Hawk's Well (1916) by Yeats; The Kalevala (the Finnish national epic); and The Conference of the Birds , the story of a Sufi religious quest.

Prospero's Island: The Secret Alchemy at the Heart of The Tempest , by Noel Cobb. London: Coventure, 1984* (224, incl. 3-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 9-p. ref. notes, 37 illus.).

Characterizing Shakespeare as walking a path which sought harmony between that which is above and that which is below ("like some strange Western incarnation of a Taoist sage"), Cobb presents him as representing the complete individual and his drama The Tempest as the "impeccable culmination" of his life's work. Feeling that Shakespeare can help in revisioning the soul-spirit polarity (referring to the pioneering work of Jung, and, more recently, Hillman, in distinguishing spirit and soul and bringing the soul back into psychology), he states that alchemical images permeate the play, which was written at the time of the golden age of alchemy. He suggests that these images are still valid today and provide symbols of reconciliation for the often warring inner opposites. Prospero, as the image-quickening Magus of Imagination, is viewed as living the contradiction of perceiving the absolute and yet living amidst the relative.

The Quest: Further Adventures in the Unconscious , by J. Marvin Spiegelman. Phoenix: Falcon Press, 1984p* (175 + x, incl. 2 illus.).

In this second volume of his trilogy on psycho-myth, which he defines as a blend of fiction and psychological fact and describes in the introduction to the first work of the trilogy (The Tree, 1974), Spiegelman presents further adventures into the unconscious, the result of many years of using Jung's method of active imagination. He narrates three stories, entitled "The Son of the Knight," "Mother and Daughter," and "The Vessel," which deal symbolically with the process of self-discovery and individuation.

Mental Forms Creating: William Blake Anticipates Freud, Jung, and Rank , by Jerry Caris Godard. Lanham, Md., New York, and London: University Press of America, 198S* +p* (173, incl. 5-p. index, 6-p. ref. notes, 6-p. gloss. of terms, 10 illus.).

Inspired by the spirit of William James and his sensitivity to the integrity of the ideas of others, Godard examines, in turn, the theories of Freud, Jung, and Otto Rank (designated "heirs apparent" by Freud) with an analysis of Blake's anticipation of each. He views Blake's insights as multifaceted and sharply-focused portrayals of human nature, and he characterizes Blake's anticipations as bringing into relief the human experiences of consciousness, rationality, love, individuality, and terror.

The Nymphomaniac: A Study in the Origins of a Passion of the Soul Along with Two Essays on the Jungian Techniques of Active Imagination , by J. Marvin Spiegelman. Phoenix: Falcon Press, 1985p* (78 + ii, ind. I-p. bibl. notes, 12 illus.).

Preceding a 9-page commentary and his 32-page "psycho-mythological tale" of Sybilla, the Nymphomaniac, which is the second of five stories narrated by women in the tale The Tree (1974), Spiegelman presents an essay on the potential of active imagination (also published in The Knight ) and another essay on the potentials and limitations of active imagination (presented in London in 1984), all of which provide amplification and explanation of the background and meaning of the tale. He emphasizes, however, that the story itself is relatively timeless and can stand alone as a story of "the feminine," whether in man or woman.

Word Image Psyche , by Bettina L. Knapp. University, Ala.: U. of Alabama Press, 1985* (247 + ix, ind. 9-p. index, 4-p. bibl., 7-p. ref. notes, 31 illus.).

Citing Jung's theories on creativity and the unconscious, Knapp presents reactions by nine writers, who are not primarily critics but rather poets, essayists, and novelists, to paintings and sculptures that have stimulated the depths of the collective unconscious in each. She discusses, chronologically, Gautier's confrontation with aestheticism versus asceticism in the paintings of Ribera and Zurbardn; Baudelaire's appraisals of Delacroix's paintings as "the celebration of a mystery"; the Goncourt brothers' distinctive style of icriture-sensation (an almost obsessive focus on the tactile aspect of graphic and plastic arts); Huysmans's "catalytic eye" (able to transform art into verbal pictures); Henry James's view of portraiture and anima in The Ambassadors ; Rilke's writing inspired by Rodin's creative genius (the puersenex dynamic); Kokoschka's apocalyptic experience illustrated by his own drawings for Murderer, Hope of Womankind; Virginia Woolf's examination of impressionism and C6zanne in To the Lighthouse ; and Malraux's essay on the shadowy inner world as portrayed in Goya's stupendous "Saturn Devouring One of His Children."

Archetype, Architecture, and the Writer , by Bettina L. Knapp. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana U. Press, 1986* (208 + xvi, incl. 6-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 5-p. ref. notes).

Viewing Jung's tower-building as an archetypal metaphor for an inner psychic climate, Knapp looks at architecture as a spatial creation that is the "outer garment of a secretive and vital system," a nonverbal manifestation of a preconscious condition. She presents archetypal interpretations of "metaphoric visions" in the writings of ten authors, starting with an architectural archetype of emptiness within in Ibsen's The Master Builder ; introversion in Maeterlinck's The Intruder and Interior ; the entrapped shadow in the archetypal house in James's "The jolly Corner"; the self-made man in Ansky's "The Tower of Rome"; the archetypal land surveyor in Kafka's The Castle ; house of a matriarchate in Garcia Lorca's The House of Bernarda Alba ; the hexagonal gallery in Borges's "The Library of Babel"; a parapsychological happening in an architectural construct in Fuentes' "In a Flemish Garden"; architectonic archetype in Wang Shih-Fu's The Romance of the Western ; Chamber (thirteenth century); and an archetypal feminine sun and masculine moon in Hushima's The Temple of the Golden Pavilion (1956).

The Compensatory Psyche: A Jungian Approach to Shakespeare , by H. R. Coursen. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1986* +p* (217 + xii, incl. 4-p. index, 5-p. bibl., 15-p. ref. notes).

By approaching Shakespeare through Jung's metaphor of the "selfcompensatory psyche," the unconscious as a balance to consciousness, Coursen emphasizes the dynamic relationship of the unconscious to the "time zone known as ego." Following a brief look at Shakespeare's Richard III and Richard's nightmare, which the author feels demonstrates the universality and depth of the self-compensatory psyche, he discusses the topics of symbols of transformation, comedy and the problem play, and Henry V before interpreting Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth, ending with The Tempest. He analyzes Shakespeare's characterizations in terms of Jung's categories of psychological types in order to understand the psychological structures of individual characters and the interaction between characters.

Encounter with the Self: A Jungian Commentary on William Blake's Illustrations of the Book of Job , by Edward F. Edinger. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1986p* (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 22) (75, incl. 26 illus.).

Believing Jung's Answer to Job to be correct in asserting that job's story represents an individual ego's decisive encounter with the Self ("the Greater Personality"), Edinger characterizes Blake's illustrations of the Book of job as reflecting the objective (collective) psyche. He presents descriptions and psychological interpretations of the twenty-one paintings as the wounded encounter which provokes a descent into the unconscious, a nekiya ("journey to Hades"), similar to Edinger's own interpretation of the night sea journey of Melville's Moby-Dick , or Goethe's Faust . His analysis of Blake's rendering of the job story shows the effect of this archetypal image on the unconscious, wherein the encounter with the Self (transpersonal center of latent consciousness) is at first a defeat for the ego, but with perseverance results in a light that is born from the darkness.

The Hero's Quest for the Self: An Archetypal Approach to Hesse's Demian and Other Novels , by David G. Richards. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1987* + p* (153 + iii, incl. 21-p. index, 5-p. bibl., 5 illus.).

Richards considers that Hesse's presentation of the process of individuation in Demian (1919) actually anticipates some of Jung's subsequent insights. He likens the general reprocity of influence between Hesse and Jung (between poet and psychologist) to the discovery by the youth of the 1960s of Hesse and Jung as guides for the inward journey. He analyzes Demian as a poeticized model of Jung's central concept, which proceeds from confrontation with the shadow (the fall) to retreat from individuation (return of the prodigal son), the hero's journey (departure), symbol of unity and the Self (the discovery of Abraxas), rebirth and the path to selfhood, arrival and fulfillment, and the signs of collective rebirth.

Howard Hawks: A Jungian Study , by Clark Branson. Santa Barbara: GarlandClarke Editions/Capra Press, 1987* + p* (332 + viii, incl. 4-p. bibl., 2-p. ref. notes, 3-p. gloss. of cinematic and dramatic terms, 43 illus., 2-p. foreword by Judith Harte).

Branson presents the motifs and patterns of Hawks's films as illustrations of the basic features of Jung's thought. His "comprehensive descriptive analysis" deals with thirty-nine films produced by Hawks between 1925 and 1970 (including, among others, Scarface, His Girl Friday, Only Angels Have Wings, and Rio Bravo), preceding which he discusses Hawks and Jung under the topics of Hawks and archetypal expression; Hawks as a Jungian subject; the quaternity and the extraverted sensation function; the shadow; the anima; the self and the transcendental function; the collective unconscious; rites of passage; Hawks as auteur; the mysticism of Hawks; and the fraternal return motif.

The Secret of the Black Chrysanthemum , by Charles Stein. Barrytown, N.Y.: Station Hill Press, 1987* (Clinamen Studies Series) (225 + xxvii, ind. 4-p. bibl., 5-p. ref. notes, 17 photos).

In this study of Charles Olson (1900-1970), originator of the theory of projective verse, Stein aims to remain close to Olson's reading of Jung by examining copies of Jungian texts that were in Olson's possession (fourteen volumes, mostly closely read and heavily marked). Stein deals primarily with the period of Olson's mature creative activity beginning with the planning of The Maximus Poems . He discusses the topics of projection; the archetypes; the libido; the projection of archetypal force onto persons, language, and place; and Jung's notion of the Self with a reading of The Maximus Poems as a manifestation of this archetype. The title of the book comes from Olson's "culminating vision" of the world, with echoes of The Secret of the Golden Flower.

Women in Twentieth-Century Literature: A Jungian View , by Bettina L. Knapp. University Park, Perm.: Pennsylvania State U. Press, 1987* (249, incl. 7-p. index, 4-p. bibl., 5-p. ref. notes).

Using Jung's basic analytical technique and vocabulary and "reevaluating and revising some of his concepts," Knapp explores various feminine types in her study of some of the feminine characters in various literary works. She describes and interprets a woman's mystery in Garcia Lorca's Yerma ; the teenage archetype of exile in Elizabeth Bowen's Death of the Heart ; an alchemical transfiguration ritual in Dinesen's "Peter and Rosa"; two young girls growing up in Mussolini's Italy in Ginzburg's All Our Yesterdays ; sacrifice in O'Connor's "Everything That Rises Must Converge"; mother/daughter identification and alienation in Rhys's Wide Sargasso Sea ; androgyny and the creative process in Sarraute's Between Life and Death ; the patriarchate dismembered in Pa Chin's Family; a sacred mystery in Fumiko Enchi's Masks ; and a rite of the great-grandmother's exit in Anita Desai's Fire on the Mountain .

Jungian Literary Criticism 1920-1980: An Annotated, Critical Bibliography of Works in English (with a selection of titles after 1980), by Jos van Meurs, with John Kidd. Metuchen, N.J. and London: The Scarecrow Press, 1988* (353, incl. 27-p. indexes).

As a comprehensive survey of all secondary works (books and articles, critical and scholarly) written in English that apply the psychology of Jung to the interpretation of literary texts (monographs, articles, dissertations), van Meurs presents 902 bibliographic entries, along with explanatory information on the aims and scope of the project, research and collaboration, the format of bibliographical entries, critical standards, bibliographical sources, comprehensiveness, and further research.

Music, Archetype, and the Writer: A Jungian View , by Bettina L. Knapp. University Park, Penn. and London: Pennsylvania State U. Press, 1988* (234, incl. 6-p. index, 5-p. bibl., 6-p. ref. notes).

Quoting Jung's comment that "music should be an essential part of every analysis," Knapp examines the interaction of archetypal music (arising from the collective unconscious and expanding consciousness to reveal the psyche's potential) and the written word. She analyzes the work of twelve authors, drawn from ancient and contemporary Western and Eastern literatures and written under the influence of archetypal music. Her interpretations deal with archetypal music and active imagination in Hoffmann's "Kreisleriana"; archetypal music as science and art in Balzac's "Gambara"; Baudelaire on Wagner's archetypal operas; archetypal music as a demonic force in Tolstoy's "Kreutzer Sonata"; archetypal resonances in word, color, line, and rhythm in Kandinsky's Sounds ; an archetypal auditory experience in Joyce's "Evangeline"; archetypal music as an exercise in transcendence in Proust's Remembrance of Things Past ; jazz in Sartre's Nausea ; archetypal violin music and the prophetic experience in Yizhar's "Habakuk"; a Sanskrit sacred ritual in Bhasa's Dream of Vasavadatta (c. first century B.C.); archetypal music as multiplicity of oneness in Hanquing's Jade Mirror-Stand (fourteenth century); and audible and inaudible archetypal soundings in Mishima's Noh drama The Damask Drum (1988).

The Place of Creation: Six Essays , by Erich Neumann. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1988* (Bollingen Series LXI:3) (Essays of Erich Neumann, vol. 3) (398 + xii, incl. 16-p. index).

In this book consisting of six lectures given at Eranos Conferences in Switzerland from 1952 to 1960 (ending four months before his death at age 55), Neumann addresses the theme of creation, focusing on the "inseparable link that unites the individual, the immediate background to which he himself belongs, and the world that surrounds him and that he creates." He aims to develop the concept of "unitary reality" by expanding the concepts of analytical psychology and by establishing a more comprehensive definition of the archetype than Jung used. The essays, expanded and revised from the lectures, include a metaphysical essay on the psyche and the transformation of the reality planes (1952); the experience of the unity reality (1955); creative man and the "great experience" (1956); man and meaning (1957); peace as the symbol of life (19S8); and the psyche as the place of creation (1960).

Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra: A Jungian Interpretation , by Priscilla Murr. Berne, Frankfurt-am-Main, New York, and Paris: Peter Lang, 1988p* (European University Studies: Series XIV-Anglo-Saxon Lang. & Lit., vol. 187) (196 + xii, incl. 5-p. bibl., 16-p. ref. notes, 4-p. gloss. of Jungian terms).

Combining years of work in English literature with Jungian clinical practice, Murr presents her dissertation as a psychological interpretation of Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra . She proceeds from the setting of the tragedy ("If it be love indeed . . .") to the sealing of the tragedy ("What's brave, what's noble . . ."), followed by analytic interpretations of Antony and his anima, Cleopatra and her animus, the archetype of the trinity (in God, in government, and in the lack of acceptance of the feminine in the individuation process), and the archetype of the Great Mother. She concludes with discussions of Octavius Caesar as the single-minded persona, whose aims exhibit none of Antony's doubts and scruples; and of the individuation process, which posits Antony's dilemma as the inner urge to become his own self.

Acrobats of the Gods: Dance and Transformation , by Joan Dexter Blackmer. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1989p* (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 39) (124, incl. 4-p. index, 5-p. bibl., 40 illus.).

Calling upon a reawakened feminine spirit which she believes lies beneath the energetic explosion of physical activity in our time, Blackmer suggests the need to make conscious an evolving feminine archetype that reflects the energy and instinctive wisdom of the body, to tame it rather than renounce it. Stating that dancers are indeed acrobats of God (taken from the title of a dance choreographed in 1960 by Martha Graham) or, speaking psychologically, of the Self, she draws on twenty years' experience as both victim and beneficiary of the physical compulsion to train her body as a dancer, with which she combines her training in the principles of Jungian psychology. She discusses first the vessel (the sacred in dance; ego-body identity; body as shadow) and then analyzes the preparation of the body (the process; the third eye; the sixth sense; the value of pain). Next, she interprets approaching the center (complex of opposites; image and meaning; image of the stone to center the front of the body; image of the tree to center the back) and concludes with the transformation of energy in dance.

C. G. Jung and the Humanities: Toward a Hermeneutics of Culture , edited by Karin Barnaby and Pellegrino D'Acierno. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press, 1989* (372, ind. 18-p. index, 8-p. list of the Collected Works , end-chap. ref. notes, 19 illus., 15-p. editors' preface, 5-p. intro. by Philip T. Zabriskie).

This book is comprised of thirty papers presented by thirty-five participants at the 1986 international, interdisciplinary conference held at Hofstra University. They demonstrate Jung's far- reaching impact on our culture and represent a number of views from traditional Jungian to contemporary nonJungian and anti-Jungian positions. Organized under the three general headings of the archetypal tradition, creativity, and post-Jungian contributions, topical subheadings are mythology, religion, anthropology, popular culture, architecture, imagination, art, dance and theater, literature, gender issues, and postmodernism. Contributions by Jungian analysts, in addition to Zabriskie's introduction on Jung and the humanities, are on Jung's impact on religious studies (John Dourley); William Blake (June Singer); meaning in art (Stephen Martin); the feminine, pre- and post-Jungian (Beverley Zabriskie); beyond the feminine principle (Andrew Samuels); the unconscious in a postmodern depth psychology (Paul Kugler); and creativity, Jung, and post- modernism (James Hillman).

Death and Rebirth in Virgil's Arcadia , by M. Owen Lee. Albany: State U. of New York Press, 1989* +p* (SUNY Series in Classical Studies) (140 + xi, ind. 4-p. index of names, 15-p. ref. notes).

Addressing himself to the reader who wants both an introduction to Virgil's Eclogues (pastoral poems written 41-39 B.C.) and an interpretation of them, Lee describes Arcadia as the land within the imagination where a young poet discovers himself by distancing himself from the present. Lee utilizes Jungian theory and terminology, characterizing Virgil as "an intensely intuitive artist." He discusses metaphorical Arcadia, in which everything has symbolic value, as a composite picture of past tradition (Sicily, the origin of Theocritus's pastorals), personal experience (Mantua, close to Virgil's birthplace on a farm), and a mythic memory of primeval innocence (Arcadia). He then interprets the Eclogues under the topics of music Eclogues (3 and 7), love (2 and 8), the city (1 and 9), the Golden Age (4), death (5), and leaving Arcadia (10), concluding with chapters on reading and interpreting the Eclogues (6).

In the Ever After: Fairy Tales and the Second Half of Life, by Allen B. Chinen. Wilmette, Ill.: Chiron Publications, 1989p* (203, ind. 9-p. index, 18-p. bibl., 21-p. ref. notes).

Taking the thesis that fairy tales about "old" protagonists reveal the psychology of maturity and that elder tales symbolize the developmental tasks individuals must master in the second half of life, Chinen interprets fifteen tales, relying upon psychodynamic theories of human development- particularly those of Jung and Erickson. One-third of the tales are from Japan, the remainder from Korea, Tibet, Burma, India, Arabia, Asia Minor, Croatia, Italy, and Germany, with one Jewish tale as well. Following each tale are reflections on its psychological meaning, covering the topics of loss and return of magic; confrontation; mask and self; wisdom; wisdom and evil; self-transcendence; self- transcendence and God; self-transcendence and the inner self; emancipated innocence; ego-integrity and innocence; the return of wonder; mediation and transcendence; mediation and the emancipation of society; return and transfiguration; and the elder cycle completed.

Machine, Metaphor, and the Writer: A Jungian View, by Bettina L. Knapp. University Park, Penn. and London: Pennsylvania State U. Press, 1989* (244 + viii, incl. 14-p. index, 5-p. bibl., 6-p. ref. notes).

In considering the theme of the impact of the machine on the literary mind, Knapp presents writings by French, Irish, Japanese, Israeli, German, Polish, and American authors and interprets how the increasing domination by technology is affecting our lives.

The Water of Life: A Jungian journey through Hawaiian Myth, by Rita Knipe. Honolulu: U. of Hawaii Press, 1989* (176 + xv, incl. 4-p. index, 4-p. bibl., 2-p. gloss. of Hawaiian words, 13 illus.).

Knipe comments that mythology flows like a subterranean stream throughout Hawaii and that the mythic material presented here has been determined by her own position beside this stream as shaped by personal and professional experiences. Interpreting myths that illustrate certain universal themes or Jungian concepts, she retells stories of characteristic myths and mythological figures from the pantheon of Hawaiian deities, amplifying the symbols with psychological commentary and a number of dreams. Following a brief introduction, in which she recounts her love affair with the Islands, she presents the myths of the life-giving water of the god Kane; the Kumulipo creation chant; love stories of Halemano and Kamaldlawalu and of Hiku and Kawelu; Maui, light-bringer of the Pacific; Hina, goddess of the moon; miraculous Menehune; volcanic fire goddess Pele; Kamapua'a, the pig god; and the helpful goddess Hi'iaka.

Goethe's Faust: Notes for a Jungian Commentary , by Edward F. Edinger. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1990p (Studies of Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 43) (111, incl. 4-p. index, 3- p. bibl., 3 illus.).

Asserting, as did Jung, that Goethe's Faust is profoundly significant as a "document of the soul" and for the psychological understanding of modern individuals, Edinger offers some notes as a "beginning" of a Jungian interpretation of the legend. He views Faust's encounter with Mephistopheles as having been paved by the process of enantiodromia (running counter to) in which the figure of Christ is replaced by Antichrist. The corollary to this is the God-image (a metaphysical projection) falling out of heaven in the sixteenth century and ultimately landing in the human psyche. He examines the Faust legend as being generated like a compensating dream from the unconscious, which demonstrates that the individuation process is accompanied by guilt. The danger here is that when guilt reaches consciousness the ego may be overwhelmed by a sense of its own evil. He believes that Faust's struggle for fulfillment originates in the Self, which shares the guilt incurred by the ego, and that "redemption" is the result of an unconscious process. He states that Faust is "perhaps the central 'collective dream' of the Western psyche during the final quarter of the Christian eon."

Lyrical-Analysis: The Unconscious through Jane Eyre, by Angelyn Spignesi. Wilmette: Ill.: Chiron Publications, 1990p (349 + x).