Cross Currents: Chapter 12

Analytical psychology, as a body of thought, has numerous applications. As a practical discipline, Jungian analysis is committed to the goal of psychological healing. More than one hundred forty books comprise this subject category, plus more than twenty that are cross-referenced from other subjects. It is the largest subject among the twelve in this book. More than half of these books were published from 1981 onward.

Cross Currents: An Annotated Bibliography
by David R. Dyer
(Shambala Publications, 1991)

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12      Civilization in Transition

Jungian Analysis

Analytical psychology, as a body of thought, has numerous applications. As a practical discipline, Jungian analysis is committed to the goal of psychological healing. It has taken its place among accepted methods of psychological treatment, even though, in the popular view, it retains an esoteric aura. The Jungian approach puts primary emphasis on revealing the fundamental and often unconscious blocks in the personality. Jung's ideas are being used increasingly in routine and down-to- earth ways in the helping professions, particularly in analysis, psychotherapy, and counseling. More than one hundred forty books comprise this subject category, plus more than twenty that are cross-referenced from other subjects. It is the largest subject among the twelve in this book. More than half of these books were published from 1981 onward. Jung: Critique of Psychoanalysis
__: Dream Analysis
__: Experimental Researches
__: Freud and Psychoanalysis
__: The Practice of Psychotherapy
__: Psychiatric Studies
__: The Psychoanalytic Years
__: The Psychogenesis of Mental Disease
__: The Psychology of Dementia Praecox
__: The Psychology of the Transference
__: Studies in Word-Association
__: The Theory of Psychoanalysis
Alder: The Living Symbol (See chapter 6, "Human Development and Individuation")
Adler (ed.): Current Trends in Analytical Psychology (See chapter 3, "Jung's Psychology")
__: Success and Failure in Analysis
Allan: Inscapes of the Child's World
Amman: Healing and Transformation in Sandplay
Arroyo: Astrology, Psychology, and the Four Elements
Baker (ed.): Methods of Treatment in Analytical Psychology
Barker: Healing in Depth
Barton: Three Worlds of Therapy
Bauer: Alcoholism and Women
Baynes: Mythology of the Soul
Beebe (ed.): Money, Food, Drink, Fashion, and Analytic Training
Berry: Echo's Subtle Body
Bosnak: Dreaming with an AIDS Patient
Buhrmann: Living in Two Worlds
Carlson: In Her Image (See chapter 8, "Feminine and Masculine Psychology")
Carotenuto: Eros and Pathos (See chapter 6, "Human Development and Individuation")
__: Kant's Dove
__: A Secret Symmetry
__: The Spiral Way
Christou: The Logos of the Soul
Colegrave: By Way of Pain (See chapter 6, "Human Development and Individuation")
Conger: Jung and Reich
Coukoulis: Guru, Psychotherapist, and Self
Covitz: Emotional Child Abuse
Cowan: Masochism
Custance: Wisdom, Madness, and Folly
Dallett: When the Spirits Come Back
Dieckmann: Twice-Told Tales (See chapter 10, "Creativity and Jung's Psychology")
Dundas: Symbols Come Alive in the Sand
Duran: Archetypal Consultation
Edinger: Anatomy of the Psyche
__: The Living Psyche
Ellenberger: The Discovery of the Unconscious (See chapter 3, "Jung's Psychology") Evans: The Problem of the Nervous Child
Fierz: Jungian Psychiatry
Fordham: Jungian Psychotherapy
__: The Self and Autism
Fordham (ed.): Technique in jungian Analysis
Fry & Hall: The Symbolic Profile
Furth: The Secret World of Drawings
Goodbread: The Dreambody Toolkit
Gordon: Dying and Creating
Grof: Beyond the Brain
Guggenbfihl-Craig: Eros on Crutches
__: Marriage: Dead or Alive
__: Power in the Helping Professions
Hall: Clinical Uses of Dreams
__: Hypnosis
__: Jungian Dream Interpretation (See chapter 7, "Symbolic Life and Dreams")
__: The jungian Experience: Analysis and Individuation
Harding: The Parental Image
Heyer: The Organism of the Mind
Hill (ed.): The Shaman from Elko
Hill (coord.): Sandplay Studies
Hillman: Emotion
__: Healing Fiction
__: Inter Views
__: The Myth of Analysis
__: Suicide and the Soul
Hinkle: The Re-Creating of the Individual
Hobson: Forms of Feeling
Hochheimer: The Psychotherapy of C. G. Jung
Hubback: People Who Do Things to Each Other
Jacobs: Western Psychotherapy and Hindu-Sadhana
Jacoby: The Analytic Encounter
__: Individuation and Narcissism (See chapter 6, "Human Development and Individuation")
__: The Longing for Paradise
Kalff: Sandplay
Kane: Recovering from Incest
Keyes: Inwardjourney: Art as Therapy (See chapter 10, "Creativity and Jung's Psychology") Kiepenheuer: Crossing the Bridge
Kraemer (ed.): The Forbidden Love
Kugelmann: The Windows of the Soul
Lambert: Analysis, Repair, and Individuation
Layard: The Lady of the Hare
Leonard: Witness to the Fire
Lockhart: Words as Eggs
L6pez-Pedraza: Cultural Anxiety
__: Hermes and His Children
Mankowitz: Change of Life (See chapter 8, "Feminine and Masculine Psychology")
Mattoon: Understanding Dreams (See chapter 7, "Symbolic Life and Dreams")
Mattoon (ed.): Personal and Archetypal Dynamics in the Analytical Relationship
McCully: Jung and Rorschach
McNeely: Touching: Body Therapy and Depth Psychology
Meier: Healing Dream and Ritual
Middelkoop: The Wise Old Man
Mindell: Coma
__: The Dreambody in Relationships
__: River's Way (See chapter 7, "Symbolic Life and Dreams")
__: Working with the Dreaming Body
Mogenson: God Is a Trauma (See chapter 9, "Religion and Jung's Psychology")
New England Society of jungian Analysts: The Analytic Life
Perera: The Scapegoat Complex
Perry: The Far Side of Madness
__: Roots of Renewal in Myth and Madness
__: The Self in Psychotic Process
Provost: A Casebook: Applications of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in Counseling
Quenk: Psychological Types and Psychotherapy
Reed: Emergence (See chapter 6, "Human Development and Individuation")
Rossi: Dreams and the Growth of Personality
__: The Psychobiology of Mind-Body Healing
Rudin: Psychotherapy and Religion (See chapter 9, "Religion and Jung's Psychology")
Samuels: The Plural Psyche
Samuels (ed.): Psychopathology
Samuels, Shorter & Plaut (eds.): A Critical Dictionary of Jungian Analysis
Sandner: Navaho Symbols of Healing
Sanford: Dreams and Healing
__: Healing and Wholeness
Savage: Mourning Unlived Lives
Schapira: The Cassandra Complex
Schwartz-Salant: The Borderline Personality
__: Narcissism and Character Transformation
Schwartz-Salant & Stein (eds.): Abandonment
__: Archetypal Processes in Psychotherapy
__: The Body in Analysis
__: The Borderline Personality in Analysis
__: Dreams in Analysis
__: TransferencelCountertransference
Sharp: Dear Gladys (See chapter 6 "Human Development and Individuation")
__: . The Survival Papers (See chapter 6 "Human Development and Individuation")
Sidoli: The Unfolding Self (See chapter 6)
Sidoli & Davies (eds.): Jungian Child Psychotherapy
Singer: Boundaries of the Soul
Smart & Brown: Neurosis and Crime
Spiegelman (ed.): Jungian Analysts
Spignesi: Starving Women
Stein, M.: Jung's Treatment of Christianity (See chapter 9, "Religion and Jung's Psychology")
Stein, M. (ed.): Jungian Analysis
Stein, R.: Incest and Human Love
Steinberg: Circle of Care
Stern (ed.): Carl Jung and Soul Psychology
6] Steuernagel: Political Philosophy as Therapy (See chapter 12, "Civilization in Transition")
Stevens: Withymead
Storr: The Art of Psychotherapy
__: The Integrity of the Personality
Sullivan: Psychotherapy Grounded in the Feminine Principle
Te Paske: Rape and Ritual
Weinrib: Images of the Self. The Sandplay Therapy Process
Wheelwright: St. George and the Dandelion
Wheelwright (ed.): The Analytic Process
__: The Reality of the Psyche (See chapter 4, "The Psyche")
White: Soul and Psyche (See chapter 9, "Religion and Jung's Psychology")
Whitmont: Psyche and Substance
Whitmont & Perera: Dreams
Willeford: Feeling, Imagination, and the Self (See chapter 6, Individuation")
Wilmer: Practical Jung
Wolff: Jesus the Therapist
Woodman: Addiction to Perfection
__: The Owl Was a Baker's Daughter
__: Pregnant Virgin
__: The Ravaged Bridegroom
Young-Eisendrath: Hags and Heroes
Young-Eisendrath & Wiedemann: Female Authority
Ziegler: Archetypal Medicine
Zoja: Drugs, Addiction, and Initiation
__: The Differing Uses of Symbolic and Clinical Approaches
Studies in Word-Association: Experiments in the Diagnosis of Psychopathological Conditions Carried Out at the Psychiatric Clinic of the University of Zurich, under the Direction of C. G. Jung. (Ger.: Diagnostische Assoziationsstudien: Beitr,4ge zur experimentellen Psychologie. Leipzig: Barth Verlag, 1906-09, in 2 vols.) New York: Moffat, Yard, 1918; London: Heinemann, 1919; New York: Russell & Russell, repr. 1969; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, reissue 1969 (595 + ix, incl. 7-p. index, 7-p. bibl.).

During his early career as First Assistant and later (1905) Chief Physician at Burgh6lzli Hospital, Jung directed a research project involving a word-association test in order to gain an understanding of how to treat patients. The test, which had been used only on conscious lines of thought, was here applied to unconscious mental processes, drawing Jung's attention to complexes that he came to believe exist in everyone. The longest contribution (165 pp.) is a series of studies written jointly by Jung and Franz Riklin on associations of normal subjects. Jung alone contributed reports on the analysis of the associations of an epileptic; on reaction-time ratio in association experiments; on psychoanalysis and association experiments; association, dream, and hysterical symptoms; and on disturbances in reproduction in association experiments.

The Psychology of Dementia Praecox, by C. G. Jung. (Get.: Ober die Psychologie der Dementia praecox. Halle: Carl Marhold, 1907.) New York: journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Co., 1909 (Monograph Series No. 3); 1936 (different translation); Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1974p (222 + ix, incl. 8-p. index).

Drawing upon three years' experimental researches and clinical observations in the word-association project and stimulated by the new approach to dementia praecox (schizophrenia) suggested by Burgh6lzli Director Eugen Bleuler, Jung proposed to answer the question of why the complexes are so resistant to treatment in dementia praecox. He presents first a critical survey of theoretical views on the psychology of dementia praecox and then interprets the feeling-toned complex (the affects of pleasure and displeasure) and its general effects on the psyche and its influence on the valency of associations. He also discusses the similarities between dementia praecox and hysteria in terms of disturbances of the emotions, abnormalities of character, intellectual disturbances, and stereotypy. The remaining one-third of the study is devoted to his analysis of a case of paranoid dementia as a paradigm in which he first interprets simple word associations and then continuous associations as reflected in wish fulfillment, the complex of injury, and the sexual complex.

The Theory of Psychoanalysis, by C. G. Jung. (Ger.: Versuch einer Darstellung der psychoanalytischen Theorie. Leipzig and Vienna: Deuticke, 1913.) New York: journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Co., 1915 (Monograph Series No. 19); New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., repr. 1971 (135 + iii).

In this work consisting of nine lectures written in German but given in English as a course at Fordharn University, Jung's aim is to reconcile his practical experiences in psychoanalysis with the approaches of existing theory, especially his attitude to the guiding principles of his "honored teacher Sigmund Freud." He does put forth certain views that deviate from hypotheses of Freud, "not as contrary assertions but as illustrations of the organic development of the basic ideas Freud has introduced into science." After reviewing early hypotheses, he discusses the theory of infantile sexuality; the concept of libido; neurosis and causal factors in childhood; fantasies of the unconscious; the Oedipal complex; an investigation of the causes of neurosis; and therapeutic principles of psychoanalysis. He ends by describing a case of neurosis in a child, used to illustrate the actual process of treatment.

Dream Analysis: Notes of the Seminar Given in 1928-1930 by C. G. Jung, edited by William McGuire. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen Series XCIX:1, 1984*; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984* (757 + xxiii, incl. 39-p. index, 10-p. editor's preface).

This dream seminar, conducted by Jung in English at weekly meetings over a seven-month period, reveals Jung's lively and learned style of presentation. Along with the interpretations of the thirty dreams of a male patient, by which one sees the gradual unfolding of the unconscious in the dreams, Jung provides a wide range of experience and learning that serves to amplify the analyses. He comments broadly on analytical psychology, discussing such topics as projections, shadow, archetypes, anima, animus, mandalas, and astrology, as well as consciousness and the unconscious.

The Practice of Psychotherapy, by C. G. Jung. New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Foundation), 1954; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1954*; Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. 1954; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/ Bollingen, ed.2 1966*; 1985p* (CW 16) (384 + xiii, ind. 26-p. index, 15-p. bibl., 19 illus.).

Consisting of nine essays under the heading of general problems of psychotherapy and three works under specific problems of psychotherapy, this collection provides an idea of the empirical foundations of psychotherapy from Jung's experience as a practicing therapist. The first part contains generally short lectures (also published as articles) on the subjects of principles of practical psychotherapy; what is psychotherapy?; aspects of modern psychotherapy; aims of psychotherapy; psychotherapy and a philosophy of life- medicine and psychotherapy; and psychotherapy today (1941); as well as two articles on problems in modern psychotherapy (1929) and fundamental questions of psychotherapy (195 1). The second part consists of articles on the therapeutic value of abreaction (removal of a complex) and on the practical use of dream analysis; and a book-length study (161 pp.) on the psychology of the transference, an account of transference phenomena based on the ten illustrations in "Rosarium Philosophorum." Appended is a lecture (previously unpublished) on the realities of practical psychotherapy.

Psychiatric Studies, by C. G. Jung. New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Foundation), 1957; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1957*; Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1957; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, ed.2 1970*; 1983p* (CW 1) (260 + xiii, incl. 22-p. index, 11-p. bibl.).

This collection, consisting of short studies on descriptive and experimental psychiatry, along with Jung's dissertation for his medical degree, comprises the first publications by Jung, appearing between 1902 and 1906. His dissertation, "On the Psychology and Pathology of So-called Occult Phenomena," (U. Zurich, 1902) is a detailed analysis of a case of somnambulism in a girl who professed to be a spiritualistic medium. The eight articles, published in professional journals, are a case of hysterical stupor in a prisoner in detention; manic mood disorder; simulated insanity; hysterical misreading; a medical opinion on a case of simulated insanity; cryptomnesia; the psychological diagnosis of facts; and a third and final opinion on two contradictory psychiatric diagnoses.

The Psycho genesis of Mental Disease, by C. G. Jung. New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Foundation), 1960*; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1960*; Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1960; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/ Bollingen, 1982p* (CW 3) (303 + viii, incl. 17-p. index, 12-p. bibl.).

More than half (151 pp.) of this collection of writings on the psycho genesis of mental disease is occupied by Jung's monograph on the psychology of dementia praecox (1907); in addition, three lectures/articles on schizophrenia are included (psycho genesis of schizophrenia (1939); recent thoughts on schizophrenia (1956); and schizophrenia (1958) ). Other lectures or addresses, also previously published in journals, are on the content of the psychoses (1908); psychological understanding and the importance of the unconscious in psychopathology (1914); and the problem of psycho genesis in mental disease (1919). Also included are an article on a criticism of Bleuler's theory of schizophrenic negativism (1911) and a newspaper article on mental disease and the psyche.

Freud and Psychoanalysis, by C. G. Jung. New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Foundation), 1961*; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1961*; Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1961; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1985p* (CW 4) (368 + xii, ind. 16-p. index, 8-p. bibl.).

The collection illustrates essential elements in Jung's changing views on the subject of Freud and psychoanalysis. The first part contains nine brief studies from the period of Jung's enthusiastic collaboration as one of the leading spokesmen for and practitioners of psychoanalysis. They deal with Freud's theory of hysteria; the analysis of dreams; the significance of number dreams; the psychology of rumor; and a criticism of psychoanalysis. Parts two and three contain the essentials of criticism that led to the formal rupture with Freud, part two being the book-length The Theory of Psychoanalysis (series of lectures given at Fordham University in 1912). Part three consists of lectures dealing with psychoanalysis and neurosis (1912), and general aspects of psychoanalysis (1913), as well as correspondence between Jung and Dr. Loy on some crucial points in psychoanalysis (1913), along with prefaces to Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology (1916, 1917). Also included is a newspaper article on Freud and Jung written in 1929.

The Psychology of the Transference, by C. G. Jung. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1969p*; London: Ark Paperbacks, 1983p* (198 + xiii, ind. 16-p. index, 15-p. bibl., 16 illus.).

As one of the first in the series of Princeton/Bollingen Paperbacks (which consist of extracts from the Collected Works), this volume deals with the phenomenon called "transference," which appears to be bound up in a very fundamental way with the success or failure of lengthy treatment. It is excerpted from volume 16 (The Practice of Psychotherapy). Jung states his aim to be to provide an orientation that is addressed "exclusively to those who have already gained sufficient experience from their own practice"; but it is not an account of the clinical phenomena of the transference. He analyzes the subject using the illustrations to the "Rosarium Philosophorum" (1550), a set of ten alchemical pictures that symbolize the alchemical opus which involves, in general, the refining of the materia prima, the unconscious contents, through the unification of conflicting polarities within the psyche in order to reach a higher plane in the individuation process toward integration of the personality. He takes for granted some knowledge of his Psychology and Alchemy.

Experimental Researches, by C. G. Jung. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/ Bollingen, 1973*; 1981p*; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973* (CW 2) (640 + xii, incl. 1 0- p. index, 11 -p. bibl.).

Jung's experimental researches, which evidenced a revolutionary advance in the use of experimental techniques during the first decade of the twentieth century, are collected in this volume, whose principal contents are his contributions to the famous Studies in Word- Association (published 1906-09 in German; 1918 in English). In addition to six contributions published in the studies, three additional ones (experimental observations on the faculty of memory; psychological diagnosis of evidence; psychopathological significance of the association experiment) are included in this collection. Also included are two lectures on the association method that Jung delivered at Clark University in 1909. Three articles on psychophysical researches comprise part two of the volume, including Jung's first publication in English (on the association experiment), which was published in 1907.

The Psychoanalytic Years, by C. G. Jung. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/ Bollingen, 1974p * (168 + vii, incl. 8-p. index, 4-p. bibl.).

These excerpts from the Collected Works come from the period between 1906 and 1912, when Jung, who was then in his thirties, was Freud's leading follower and the leading psychoanalyst after Freud. With the exception of the 1906 article on psychoanalysis and the association experiments (from CW 2) and the 1909 lecture on psychic conflicts in a child, delivered at Clark University in his series on "The Association Method" (from CW 17), these excerpts come from CW 4. They include articles on Freud's theory of hysteria; the psychology of rumor; a critical review (1911) of Morton Prince's article on the mechanism and interpretation of dreams; an article on the criticism of psychoanalysis; an article concerning psychoanalysis; and an article on the significance of the father in the destiny of the individual (1909; rev. 1927 and 1949).

Critique of Psychoanalysis, by C. G. Jung. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/ Bollingen, 1975p (259 + vi, incl. 13-p. index, 4-p. bibl.).

The chief content of this collection is the set of nine Fordham Lectures (1912) on the theory of psychoanalysis (144 pp.), which is described above, under Freud and Psychoanalysis. Also included are other extracts from volume 4 of the Collected Works, namely, general aspects of psychoanalysis; psychoanalysis and neurosis; some crucial points in psychoanalysis; prefaces to Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology; an introduction to Kranefeldt's Die Psychoanalyse (1930, translated and published as Secret Ways of the Mind in 1932); and contrasts between Freud and Jung. From volume 18 is the three-page "Answers to Questions on Freud" in which Jung responded to a questionnaire from a representative of the New York Times in Geneva in connection with a projected article on Freud in 1953. So far as it is known, the Times did not publish the answers; but they were published in the journal Spring in 1968.

The Problem of the Nervous Child, by Elida Evans. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1920; London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1921 (299 + viii, incl. 3-p. index, 1 diagram, 4-p. intro. by Jung).

In searching for practical results of the "newer psychology of the unconscious," Evans presents an introduction to the psychoanalytical treatment of nervous problems of the child from the special point of view of the relation between parent and child. Jung comments on how much stress Evans places on the parents' mental attitude and its importance for the child's psychology. Evans's discussions encompass the development of repression; symbolic thought; the child's reactions; the parent complex; buried emotions; child training; muscular erotism; the tyrant child; teaching of right and wrong; and self and character.

The Re-Creating of the Individual: A Study of Psychological Types and Their Relation to Psychoanalysis, by Beatrice M. Hinkle. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1923; New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1923; New York: Dodd, Mead, 1949 (465 + xiii, incl. 15-p. index, 11 illus.).

Drawing on more than twenty years of study and treatment of individuals suffering from neuroses and psychic disturbances, as well as "normal people," Hinkle identifies her work as closely related to Jung's and acknowledges the value of his conceptions. She relates the self-knowledge that can be Obtained from psychoanalysis to a study of psychological types that offers ,"'the possibility of a new creative synthesis. Following a brief discussion of analytical psychology in the development of the individual, she examines the Freudian sexual interpretation of the child and the topics of dynamic manifestations of the unconscious in human life; symbolism in dream and fantasy and their present and prospective value for the dreamer; a study of psychological types; masculine and feminine psychology; the psychology of the artist and the significance of artistic creation; the process of reintegration of the individual; and the significance of psychoanalysis for the spiritual life.

The Organism of the Mind: An Introduction to Analytical Psychology, by Gustav Richard Heyer. (Ger.: Der Organismus der Seele, eine Einfhrung in die analytiscbe Seelenheilkunde. Munich: Lehman's Verlag, 1932.) London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1933; New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1934 (271 + xiii, incl. 5-p. index, 37 illus.).

Aiming to present the fundamentals of mental life (being, becoming, and transformation) and to show what psychotherapy is and why and how it is practiced, Heyer follows the developmental trend in analytical psychology as it is "beginning to evolve into a general doctrine of life." Nearly half of the book is devoted to a discussion of organ neuroses and vital cycles, in which the author examines psychological treatment by suggestion and other methods. In the other half he explores specific analytical methods of treatment, with a chapter each given to sexual analysis (Freud: 26 pp.), individual psychology (Adler: 17pp.), and Jung's analytical psychology (36 pp.).

Mythology of the Soul: A Research into the Unconscious from Schizophrenic Dreams and Drawings, by Helton Godwin Baynes. London: Balliere, Tindall & Cox, 1940; Baltimore: Wood [Williams & Wilkins, 1940; London: Methuen, 1949; New York: British Book Centre, 1949; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, repr. 1955; New York: Humanities Press, 1955; London: Rider, ed.2 1969 (980 + xiii, incl. 27-p. index, 79 illus.).

Calling for an introverting psychological approach as the only suitable one for the investigation of schizophrenia, Baynes, an early assistant of Jung, employs Jung's analytical method in his own analysis of two individuals who manifest contrasts in attitude toward the irruption of primitive tendencies from the unconscious but who both have the same doubt about the validity of their own nature or the stability of their own mind. Following an introduction of psychiatric antecedents of the psychological conception of mental disorders, he analyzes dreams and interprets the patient's drawings in order to provide a wide amplification of the material reflecting the unconscious processes.

The Lady of the Hare: A Study in the Healing Power of Dreams, by John Layard. London: Faber & Faber, 1944; New York: AMS Press, repr. 1977; Boston & London: Shambhala Publications, repr. 1988p* (277, incl. 29-p. index, 22 illus., 1-p. foreword by Robert Johnson in 1988 ed.).

Layard presents the case history of a hard-working English country wife as an example of the practice of analytical psychology in which the analyst's part, as well as the patient's part, in the process is recorded. The dream analysis is comprised of twelve interviews involving twenty-five dreams and visions with direct use of Christian symbolism. He follows with a comprehensive interpretation of the mythology of the hare as an archetype, discussing its motif in India, China, ancient Egypt, North America, Africa, Europe, and in classical antiquity. He concludes with a section on more dreams about hares and rabbits, showing the mythological motives on which they are based and their relation to everyday life.

Healing Dream and Ritual: Ancient Incubation and Modern Psychotherapy, by C. A. Meier. (Orig. title: Ancient Incubation and Modern Psychotherapy. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern U. Press, 1967 (Studies in Jungian Thought).) (Get.: Antike Inkubation und Moderne Psychotherapie. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1949/Studien aus dern C. G. Jung-Institut, vol. 1.) Einsiedeln, Switzerland: Daimon Verlag, 1989p* (160 + v, incl. 10-p. subject index, 6-p. name 11 illus., 2-p. foreword by Jung).

Jung's concept of the self-healing tendency of the psyche and connecting it with his own work in a psychiatric clinic, Meier became convinced of the need to study incubation in the ancient world. Here he presents the results of his studies, describing the ancient incubation ritual in the sanctuaries of Asclepius and at the oracle of Trophonius at Lebadea as exemplary of the mystery of healing, which he interprets with the help of analytical psychology. He examines the implications of similarities between the ancient Greek healing rites and modern therapeutic practice in the sense that the curing of illness is bound up closely with understanding the meaning of illness and its connection to the total life of the sufferer. He illustrates this with 13 dreams by modern persons.

Wisdom, Madness, and Folly: The Philosophy of a Lunatic, by John Custance (pseud.). London: Gollancz, 1951; Toronto: Longmans Canada, 1951; New York: Pellegrini & Cudahy, 1952 (London edition lacks Jung's preface) (254, incl. 4-p. preface by Jung, 3-p. foreword by L. W. Grensted).

While in his middle thirties, the author suffered a bout of manic depression, accompanied by an interesting emotional religious experience. Custance (a pseudonym) claims that his experience bears out Jung's theories of the unconscious. During the manic or elated periods of the illness, he felt a sense of revelation of ultimate harmonies, which he describes as psychic reality rather than a "quality of 'revelation.' " He examines the topics of meaning and mania; universe of bliss; universe of horror; fantasia of opposites; delusion and reality; and the theory of actuality. Appended are comments on the management of mental homes and mental treatment, reactions to specific treatments, and results of Szondi and Rorschach tests.

The Self in Psychotic Process: Its Symbolism in Schizophrenia, by John Weir Perry. Berkeley and Los Angeles: U. of California Press, 1953; London: Cambridge U. Press, 1954; Dallas: Spring Publ., repr. 1987p* (Jungian Classics Series, 10) (184 + xxiii, incl. 6-p. index, 2-p. bibl., 11-p. ref. notes, 38 illus., 4-p. foreword by Jung).

Expressing profound appreciation to the patient (a 27-year-old housewife) and her family for allowing her experience and fantasy productions to be used, Perry recounts her case history from the initial delusions onward. He discusses and analyzes the development of the problem; the resolution; the nature of the material; the amplification of the symbol; the psychological concept; the interpretation of the process; the symbolism of the quadrated circle and its meaning in the East and in the West; the symbolism of opposites; the symbolism of rebirth; and the psychology of the symbolism. Appended is a detailed account of the patient's history and material.

Emotion: A Comprehensive Phenomenology of Theories and Their Meanings for Therapy, by James Hillman. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1960; Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern U. Press, 1961 (318 + x, incl. 6-p. index, 21-p. bibl.).

In this slightly revised version of his doctoral dissertation written at the University of Zurich (1958), Hillman examines wide divergences in explanations of emotion, which he characterizes as a "total pattern of the soul." He differentiates the totality of emotion from partial psychological events such as feeling, sensation, and will. After discussing the phenomenology of the theories of emotion and the various denials, he explores the different forms emotion takes: a distinct entity; an accompaniment; an energy; a quantity; a totality; a signification; a conflict; a disorder; and a creative organization. He also discusses isomorphism; the unconscious; psychological location; situation; the subject-object relation; spirit; and integration.

The Integrity of the Personality, by Anthony Storr. London: William Heinemann, 1960; New York: Atheneum Press, 1961; Harmondsworth and Baltimore: 1963p; 1970p (186, incl. 4-p. index, 4-p. bibl. notes).

Having been trained both as a general psychiatrist and as an analyst in the "school of Jung," Storr aims to define the basic hypotheses of his practice, emphasizing that the analytic attitude to the patient is far more important than the "school." Representing psychotherapy as being concerned with the basic themes of human life from the point of view of self-realization and integrity of personality, he discusses his ideas under the topics of the relativity of personality; the mature relationship; development of personality; emergent personality; identification and introjection; projection and dissociation; identification and projection; heterosexual love and relationship; the psychotherapeutic process; transference and countertransference; and psychotherapy and indoctrination.

Western Psychotherapy and Hindu-Sadhana: A Contribution to Comparative Studies in Psychology and Metaphysics, by Hans Jacobs. London: Allen & Unwin, 1961; New York: International Universities Press, 1961 (232, incl. 3-p. index, 30 illus.).

Combining nine years of psychiatric practice in Australia, three years of study in analytical psychology at Zurich, and four years in India and Ceylon, Jacobs presents his quest for understanding the intrinsic connections between Western psychotherapy and Indian philosophy, particularly the question of the essential quality of mental acts and their crystallization into concrete ideas and mental images. He discusses the approaches of Freud and Jung and compares them to the Hindu approach, concluding that the deep insights of -realization. He criticizes Jung's yoga commit him to the Hindu path of self position on the applicability of yogic practices for Western individuals.

The Logos of the Soul, by Evangelos Christou. Vienna and Zurich: Dunquin Press, 1963; Dallas: Spring Publications, 1977p; reissue 1987p* (104 + iv, incl. 1 -p. foreword by C. A. Meier, 4-p. intro. by James Hillman).

The author follows Jung in taking psychotherapy as the starting point for psychology and in developing his logos of the soul from the phenomenology of the soul itself. Christou presents the idea that psychology becomes more scientific when it works out its own premises within the context of its own kind of reality, the psyche being the first reality. Following a general clarification of philosophical -scientific concepts, in which he discusses reality in psychological experience, he moves toward a "science of the soul" with discussions of psychology and the body, mind, and soul, and meaning in psychological experience. Unfortunately, the final part of the work was not completed before his death in an auto accident at age 34. It was to contain illustrations from case material resulting from actual therapeutic situations in which he used his principle and method.

Suicide and the Soul, by James Hillman. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1964; New York: Harper & Row, 1964; 1973p; Zurich: Spring Publications for the Analytical Psychology Club of New York, repr. 1976p*; Dallas: Spring, repr. 1978p; 1985p* (Dunquin Series, 8) (191, incl. 7-p. index, 5-p. bibl.).

By questioning suicide prevention and examining the death experience, Hillman approaches the suicide problem in relation to death and the soul and not from the viewpoint of life, society, and "mental health," regarding suicide as not only an exit from life but also as an entrance to death. Among the topics he discusses are medicine, analysis, and the soul; the healer as hero; diagnosis and the analytical dialectic; and hoping, growing, and the analytical process. He concludes with the subject of "medical secrecy and the analytic mystery."

The Parental Image: Its Injury and Reconstruction, by M. Esther Harding. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons for the C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, 1965; Boston: Sigo Press, repr. 1990 +p (238, incl. 4-p. index, 25 illus., 4-p. foreword by Franz Riklin).

Drawing upon nearly forty years of practice as a Jungian analyst, Harding presents selected case material concerning the problem of the injured parental image and its transformation and restoration to an appropriate place in the inner life of the individual. She begins with a discussion of the Babylonian myth of the Beginnings of Creation and of the overcoming of the parents and their consequent injury. She analyzes actual case material to show how separation from the archetypal parents appeared in the dreams of clients and how experiences led them to become free from the effects of parental control that came from the unconscious rather than from the conscious control by the actual parent. Not until the unconscious itself participated in the movement toward release from the power of the parental archetype was the person enabled to become an individual in his or her own right.

The Psychotherapy of C. G. Jung, by Wolfgang Hochheimer. (Ger.: Die Psycbologi . e von C. G. Jung. Bern and Stuttgart: Hans Huber Verlag, 1966.) New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons for the C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, 1969; Toronto: Longmans Canada, 1969 (160 + viii, incl. 10-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 2-p. intro. by Edward C . Whitmont).

Selecting from the long list of Jung's publications those which show a special connection with psychotherapy, Hochheimer states that Jung's basic theory and his psychotherapy cannot be reduced to a single method. He characterizes Jung's theory as containing many details stemming from Freud, though there are divisive and permanent differences; he refers to Jung's method as "synthetic, even constructive," in contrast to Freud's "scientific" method of reductive and causal-genetic analysis. He discusses the special nature of Jung's theories and the problem of their presentation; Jung's basic concepts regarding human nature and psychology; some remarks on Jung's analytical psychology; Jung's theory of neuroses; contributions to psychotherapeutic methodology; transference and countertransference; and the dream and its treatment.

Sandplay: A Psychotherapeutic Approach to the Psyche, by Dora M. Kalff. (Get.: Sandspiel: Seine therapeutische Wirkung auf die Psyche. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1966.) (Orig. subtitle: Mirror of a Child's Psyche. San Francisco: Browser Press, 1971p.) Santa Monica: Sigo Press, rev. 1980p* (166, incl. 1- p. bibl., 75 illus.).

Kalff has observed in her psychotherapeutic practice with children and adolescents that the dynamics of the individuation process in adults as described by Jung are also present in childhood. She outlines these findings and analyzes separate stories of development of seven children and two adults as expressed through sandplay therapy, in which patients create three dimensional "pictures" using numerous objects such as figurines and toys. She first presents the theory of sandplay as a pathway to the psyche, whereby the psychic situation of a problem is played out like a drama in the sandbox that may lead to a turning point and healing in the therapeutic process. The cases are characterized as "overcoming an anxiety neurosis," "cure of an inhibition to learn," "separation from an overpowering mother fixation," "healing of an enuresis," "loss of instinct due to an identification with an extraverted mother ... .. conquest of a speech-block ... .. the background of an adopted child's inability to read," "restoring a weak ego," and "religious background in a case of blushing."

The Analytic Process: Aims, Analysis, Training: The Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress for Analytical Psychology, Zurich, 1968, edited by Joseph B. Wheelwright. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons for the C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, 1971; Toronto: Longmans Canada, 1971 * (316 + xi, incl. 17 illus., 1-p. editor's preface).

Nine of these twenty-one essays are by authors whose books appear in this annotated bibliography, namely, "Favorite Fairytales from Childhood as a Therapeutic Factor in Analysis" (Dieckmann); "Reflections on Training Analysis" (Fordham); "The Artist's Relation to the Unconscious" (Henderson); "Pictures from the Unconscious in Four Cases of Obsessional Neurosis" (Jacoby); "Experiences with Far Eastern Philosophers" (Kalff); "Psychological Types and Individualism" (Meier); "Emotions and Object Relations" (Perry); and "The Destiny Concept in Psychotherapy" (Whitmont). Other papers deal with transformation symbols; schizophrenic patients; the transcendental function; the principle of complementarity; the analyst's own involvement; child psychotherapy; Hippocrates; the attempt to accelerate the analytical process; the analyst and a damaged victim of Nazi persecution; and the relation between individual and collective development.

Neurosis and Crime, by Frances Smart, edited by B. Curtis Brown. London: Gerald Duckworth, 1970; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1970 (178 + xx, incl. 10-p. index, 2-p. bibl., 3-p. gloss. of Jungian terms, 4-p. ref. notes, 1-p. foreword by 1. G. W. Pickering, 6- p. preface by Brown).

Drawing on ten years' experience as visiting psychotherapist at an English men's prison, Smart aims to show the possibilities that lie in the psychological treatment of offenders and to elucidate the psychopathology of men's and boys' antisocial behavior. Her approach, based primarily on the psychology of Jung, studies the personality of the offender with its unconscious motivations and seeks to find the origins of such behavior. Following a brief history of the study of crime and of psychotherapy in prison, she discusses the origin of crime in terms of social, biological, and psychological factors and then analyzes normal development, inner sources of control and conditions for normal development, and factors which interfere with normal development. She also discusses specific criminal manifestations and the question of whether criminal behavior is a neurosis or a crime. In conclusion, she discusses individual psychotherapy and its aims and application; principles of treatment; factors making for success or failure in treatment; and what ties behind the treatment. Close friend and writer Brown completed the final section after Smart's death.

Jung and Rorschach: A Study in the Archetype of Perception, by Robert S. McCully. (Orig. title: Rorschach Theory and Symbolism: A Jungian Approach to Clinical Material. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1971; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1971.) Dallas: Spring Publications, ed.2 1987p* (281 + viii, ind. 20-p. index, end-chapter notes, 22 illus.; 4- p. foreword by Zygmunt A. Piotrowski).

Recognizing Jung's depth psychology as a general inspiration for his study, McCully aims to offer a fresh point of view in interpreting inkblot mediated imagery and to call attention to the fact that the Rorschach experience reveals information about psychic structure. Following discussions of the interlacing of genius of Hermann Rorschach and Jung, Jung's concepts, and the nature of the Rorschach experience, he explores a kind of "paleopsychology," in which he traces archetypal sources and symbols back through time. He then outlines and illustrates a method for analyzing processes in the Rorschach experience and analyzes five sets of case materials that are selected to show the kinds of processes and qualities of psychic dynamics which demonstrate how ego consciousness reacts alongside influences from archetypal sources.

Power in the Helping Professions, by Adolf Guggenbiihl-Craig. (Ger.: Macht als Gefahr beim Helfer. Basel: S. Karger Verlag, 1971.) New York: Spring Publications for the Analytical Psychology Club of New York, 1971p; Dallas: Spring Publications, repr. 1979p; 1985p* (155 + iii).

Although workers in the helping, "ministering" professions make very specialized and deliberate attempts to help the unfortunate and the ill, analyst Guggenbiihl-Craig recognizes that they can cause harm directly by their very desire to help. In concentrating chiefly on the power problems of the doctor and psychotherapist and admitting his own problems as an analyst, he discusses the subject under the topics of initial contact between analyst and analysand; relationship in fantasy; the analyst and the patient's extraanalytical life; sexuality and analysis; the destructive fear of homosexuality; the analyst as flatterer; abuse of the search for meaning; the powerful doctor and the childish patient; the "healer-patient" archetype and power; splitting of the archetype; closing of the split through power; physician, psychotherapist, social worker, and teacher; shadow, destructiveness, and evil; is analysis condemned to failure?; Eros; individuation; the helpless psychotherapist; and Eros again. Success and Failure in Analysis: The Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress for Analytical Psychology, London, 1971, edited by Gerhard Adler. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons for the C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, 1974 (229 + viii, ind. end-chapter ref. notes, 15 illus., 1-p. editor's preface).

Among the eighteen Congress papers in this volume, seven are essays by authors whose books appear in this annotated bibliography, namely, "The Constellation of the Countertransference in Relation to the Presentation of Archetypal Dreams" (Dieckmann); "Ending Phase as an Indicator of the Success or Failure of Psychotherapy" (Fordham); "Has Analysis Failed as a Therapeutic Instrument?" (Guggenbiihl-Craig); "Three Ways of Failure and Analysis" (Hillman); "The Therapeutic Community Disease" (Hobson); "What We May Expect of Acute Schizophrenia" (Perry); and "Mandala Symbols and the Individuation Process" (Redfearn). Other essays include "Clinical Aspects of Dieckmann's Subject " (Rudolf Blomeyer); "The Group as Corrective for Failure in Analysis" (C. E. Brookes); "Can We Evaluate Analysis in Terms of Success and Failure?" (Gustav Dreifuss); "Family Therapy: When Analysis Fails" (George H. Hogle); "The Timing of Analysis" (David Holt); "Images of Success in the Analysis of Young Women Patients" (Faye Pye); "Analysis in Korea" (Bou-Yong Rhi); "Relativization of the Ego as a Criterion for Success in Jungian Analysis" (Georges Verne); "Psychotherapeutic Success with 'Hippies' " (William Walcott); and "Success and Failure in Analysis: Primary Envy and the Fate of the Good" (Mary Williams).

Boundaries of the Soul: The Practice of Jung's Psychology, by June Singer. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1972; Anchor Books/Doubleday, 1973p*; London: Gollancz, 1973; New York: Jason Aronson, 1975 (469 + xxxv, ind. 17-p. index, 5-p. bibl.).

In answering requests to write about the Jungian analytic process and how it works, and recognizing that Jung provides a bridge between the scientific-intellectual and the religious-nonrational aspects of life, Singer shares her experience as an analytical psychologist. She discusses first the topics of analyst and analysand; complexes by day and demons by night; from associations to archetypes; are archetypes necessary?; and analysis and counter-culture; following which she analyzes the subjects of individuation (the process of becoming whole); psychological types (the key to communications); persona and shadow; anima and animus (will one sex ever understand the other?); circurnambulating the Self; understanding our dreams; dreaming the dream onward (active imagination); religion and other approaches to the unknowable; and "we are born dying."

Dreams and the Growth of Personality: Expanding Awareness in Psychotherapy, by Ernest Lawrence Rossi. New York: Pergamon Press, 1972; New York: Brunner/Mazel, ed.2 1985* (247 + xv, incl. 11-p. index, 7-p. bibl., 8 illus.).

In exploring the growth of personality through the expansion of awareness and the creation of new identity by modern depth psychology, Rossi places Jung in the larger context'of humanistic psychology. Rossi provides a nontechnical introduction to the growth process in psychotherapy and to the expansion of awareness by way of dreams. For the professional psychotherapist, he explores the phenomenology of dreams in the process of selfreflection, synthesis, and change. His approach is an integration of laboratory research on the biology of sleep and dreams and of the place of dreams in the psychology of the individual. He also discusses psychosynthesis and recent advances in psychophysiological theories of dreaming.

Healing in Depth, by Culver M. Barker. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1972; Mystic, Conn.: Lawrence Verry, 1972 (191, incl. preface by Laurens van der Post, foreword by Paul Seligman, and intro. by H. 1. Bach).

This collection of posthumous papers reflects Barker's early study with Jung (beginning in 1927) and his continued appreciation of Jung's ideas as evidenced in his essay on "C. G. Jung, the Man and His Work." He discusses the field of psychiatry and problems in psychotherapy, including his development of a special method of treatment which he calls "feedback" and his interrelated theory of the "area of critical hurt," by which he illustrates with case histories the treatment of tracing the "original hurt" by interpretation of dreams. The final essay is entitled "The Religious Cord," in which he presents a general view of the meaning of life and the psyche.

The Myth of Analysis: Three Essays in Archetypal Psychology, by James Hillman. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern U. Press, 1972* (Studies in Jungian Thought); Toronto: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1972; New York: Torchbooks/Harper & Row, 1978p; 1983p (313 + ix, incl. 8-p. subject index, 7-p. index of proper and mythological names).

Originally given by Hillman as lectures at the Eranos Conferences in 1966, 1968, and 1969, with later enlargement and revision, these essays cover the topics of psychological creativity, psychological language, and psychological femininity. He distinguishes his perspective from a psychology based on analysis (analytical psychology), characterizing his view as the freeing of psychic phenomena from the "curse of the analytical mind" and the transformation of "psyche into life." He advocates moving the psyche by moving it, not from its sickness, but from its sick view of itself as being in need of professional care. He offers some archetypal patterns for understanding the psyche's syndromes and sufferings and suggests the approach of asking the psyche to move with its sickness into life.

Incest and Human Love: The Betrayal of the Soul in Psychotherapy, by Robert Stein. New York: Third Press, 1973; Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1974p; Dallas: Spring Publications, ed.2 1984p* (Jungian Classics Series, 7) (200 + xxi, incl. 8-p. index, 6-p. ref. notes).

Stein attributes the origin of this book to the failure of his own analysis to heal the original wounding split within his own nature. Through considerable soul searching and with further analytical help, Stein reevaluates the goals and limits of psychotherapy. He explores the incest mystery from an archetypal approach under the topics of incest and wholeness; the incest wound; infantile sexuality and narcissism; the archetypal family situation; rejection and betrayal; rejection and resistance in analysis; the dual parent myth; and the Oedipus myth and the incest archetype. He also discusses phallos in relation to masculine and feminine psychology, Eros (Eros and Thanatos; transformation of Eros; Eros and the analytical ritual), and transference (archetypal view; beyond transference: a new analysis), ending with comments on a more soul-centered approach to the psychotherapeutic relationship. Appended are ten short essays on love, sex, and marriage.

The Far Side of Madness, by John Weir Perry. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Spectrum/ Prentice-Hall, 1974 +p; Dallas: Spring Publications, 1989p* (177 + viii, incl. 5-p. index, 7-p. bibl.).

By focusing on psychic experience in depth and exploring only inner reaches and potentials, Perry presents a distinctly interior approach to psychosis, drawing on the experience of a dozen selected cases of acute schizophrenic episodes of young adults in an ordinary hospital setting from 1949 to 1961. He begins by describing the contents of the psychotic episode within a discussion on madness and then examines historical and archetypal considerations under the topics of reorganization of the self; the nature of the kingship archetype; the ritual drama of renewal; the messianic hero; mysticism and its heroes; mysticism and madness; societal implications of the renewal process; and love and power in madness. He concludes with comments on the creative element in the renewal process and on a philosophy and method of therapy.

Technique in Jungian Analysis, edited by Michael Fordham, Rosemary Gordon, Judith Hubback, Kenneth Lambert, and Mary Williams. London: William Heinemann Medical Books for the Society of Analytical Psychology, 1974*; New York: Academic Press, 1981; 1989p* (Libraryof Analytical Psychology, vol. 2) (335 + xii, ind. 7-p. index).

Demonstrating the results of some twenty years of work on the theme of technique in Jungian analysis, eleven members of the Society of Analytical Psychology of London present eighteen papers on the subject. They focus particularly on problems of transference and countertransference, interconnected themes that are constantly present in the psychotherapeutic process. Essays on technique include "The Symbolic Attitude in Psychotherapy" (Hubback); "The Personality of the Analyst in Interpretation and Therapy" (Lambert); "Flexibility in Analytic Technique" (L. Zinkin); "The Process of Reconstruction" (Lambert); "The Management of the Countertransference Evoked by Violence in the Delusional Transference" (R. Campbell); and "Terminating Analysis" (Fordham). Essays on transference include "Notes on the Transference" (Fordham); "Transference in Analytical Psychology" (A. Plaut); "Transference as Creative Illusion" (A. Cannon); "Transference as the Fulcrum in Analysis" (Gordon); and "Transference as a Form of Active Imagination" (D. Davidson). Essays on countertransference include "The Changes of Unrecognized Countertransference" (Kraemer); "Countertransference" (Fordham); "Countertransference" (R. Strauss); "Technique and Countertransference" (Fordham); and "Transference/Countertransference" (Lambert).

Three Worlds of Therapy: An Existential-Pbenomenological Study of the Therapies of Freud, Jung, and Rogers, by Anthony Barton. Palo Alto, Calif.: National Press Books/Mayfield Publishing Co., 1974 + p (271 + x, ind. endchapter refs.).

In exploring the orientation and understanding of psychotherapy as developed by Freud, Jung, and Rogers, the author uses an existentialphenomenological approach aimed at a comprehension and integration of the various schools. In sequence, he presents each of the three "worlds of therapy" in terms of the therapist's view of the patient, the approach to treatment, and how each therapist would treat "The Case of Mary." His section on Jung (78 pp.) consists of Jung's view of the patient (comprehensive individualizing; the patient's condition; projection and other systems of neurosis; the collective or universal unconscious; Self-unity as the goal of life; the theory of complexes; the ego-self and the real self); Jungian approach to psychotherapy (toward integration; symbolic soul meeting; recognition of the shadow; principle of compensation; amplification; the general activities of the therapist; development of the archetypal self); and the treatment of "Mary's case" according to the Jungian approach.

Astrology, Psychology, and the Four Elements: An Energy Approach to Astrology and Its Use in the Counseling Arts, by Stephen Arroyo. Reno: CRCS Publications, 1975 +p* (186 + xvi, incl. 2-p. bibl.).

Arroyo offers a new kind of astrology by relating it to the theories of depth psychology. Most of the first part (on astrology and psychology) is drawn from his master's thesis, in which he discusses limitations of the old framework of astrology, different approaches to knowledge and the question of proof, archetypes and universal principles, approaches to astrology, and humanistic psychology and humanistic astrology. He ends the first part with comments on the uses of astrology in the counseling arts and notes on the education and training of astrological counselors. In the second part, he presents an energy approach to interpreting birth charts in terms of the four elements.

The Forbidden Love: The Normal and Abnormal Love Of Children, edited by William Kraemer. London: Sheldon Press, 1976 (150 + x, incl. 5-p. gloss. of mostly Jungian terms).

Conceived by an informal group called "Freud-Jung," which produced the Centre for the Analytical Study of Student Problems, this study is about the child within ourselves and others, recognizing the complexity of paedophilia, and the need for more clinical investigation and more understanding on analytical lines. The collection of four studies, written by analytical psychologists of the Jungian school, consists of "A Paradise Lost" (William Kraemer); "Paedophilia: Normal and Abnormal" (Rosemary Gordon); "The Scope and Dimensions of Paedophilia" (Kenneth Lambert); and "A Struggle for Normality" (Mary Williams).

Guru, Psychotherapist, and Self. A Comparative Study of the Guru-Disciple Relationship and the Jungian Analytic Process, by Peter Coukoulis. Marina del Rey, Calif.: DeVorss, 1976* +p* (120 + iv, ind. 6-p. bibl., 5-p. gloss., 4p. ref. notes).

Coukoulis examines the psychological aspects of the guru-disciple relationship in regard to self-realization and makes a comparative analysis of that relationship and the Jungian analyst-analysand relationship. He begins with a comparison of Eastern and Western concepts of the Self and its realization, drawing on conceptions in the Upanishads, Hindu schools of philosophy, and Buddhism, followed by a discussion of Tantric views regarding the qualifications and role of the human guru and disciple in comparison with those of the Jungian analyst and analysand, along with an explanation of the relationship of guru and disciple in the Bhagavad-Gita. He examines how Sri Aurobindo, Ramakrishna, and Tibet's great yogi Milarepa viewed the role of guru. He demonstrates the personal as well as archetypal significance of the transference relationship in Jungian analysis.

Roots of Renewal in Myth and Madness, by John Weir Perry. San Francisco: jossey-Bass Publications, 1976 (256 + xii, ind. 4-p. index, 8-p. bibl., 22-p. ref. notes).

Reflecting on thirty years of work in psychotherapy with schizophrenic young adults, Perry explores the renewal process of the center in his search for the "roots of renewal," going deeply into matters of psychological theory and of archetypal myth and ritual forms. He examines the topics of healing factors in the psychotic episode, emotional development and the self-image, the chronically regressive personality, the acute psychotic regression, and the ritual drama of renewal, whose phases are characterized as the center, death, and the return to the beginnings, followed by the clash of opposites, apotheosis, the union of opposites, new birth, the renewal society, and the quadrated world. He likens the renewal of the center to the change "from monarch to messiah."

The Self and Autism, by Michael Fordham. London: William Heinemann Medical Books for the Society of Analytical Psychology, 1976* (The Library of Analytical Psychology, vol. 3) (296, incl. 4p. index, 5-p. bibl.).

Considering this to be his culminating work on the self in childhood, Fordham presents his investigations on the importance of childhood when the ground plan of individuation is laid down. He puts forward the concept of the self as a defense system designed to establish and maintain a child's individuality. His theme moves from the theory of the archetypes and the self to the topics of symbolization; religious experiences; individuation; the primary self and primary narcissism; maturation in the first two years of life (Freudian and Jungian concepts compared); infantile autism (a disorder of the self); reflections on child analysis and therapy; family interviews; child analytical psychology therapy; and notes on the therapy of infantile autism. He concludes with case studies in autism.

The Symbolic Profile, by Ruth Thacker Fry and Joyce Hall. Houston: Gulf Publishing Co. for C. G. Jung Educational Center, 1976 (85, incl. illus.).

Following twenty years of use of the Symbolic Profile, Fry and Hall provide an instructive manual to guide in administering and analyzing the Profile. Designed to "unlock" blocked areas of the psyche in which the client is maladjusted to certain life situations, the Profile is aimed at identification and articulation of psychological problems. Following explanatory information (sample of the Profile, description, purpose, procedure, approach to analysis), the authors use thirty-one cases to illustrate the use of the Profile, which consists of two pages of personal information, a page of squares in which to draw "ego," "fantasy .. .. Self-determination ... .. religion," and "potential," and a page with forty statements to be completed on such topics as "I like . . . " "I want . . . " and "My family. . . ."

Clinical Uses of Dreams: Jungian Interpretation and Enactments, by James A. Hall. New York: Grune & Stratton/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1977; Boston & London: Shambhala, 1991p as Patterns of Dreaming (367 + xxix, incl. 17-p. index, 2-p. foreword by Edward C. Whitmont).

Hall utilizes Jung's conception of the psyche, particularly the central paradox of ego and Self, to see the dream not only as a reflection of problems in one's everyday world but as an indication of the archetypal foundations of one's experience. He first presents a history of dream interpretation (dreams from antiquity to Freud; other theories of dreams; laboratory studies of sleep and dreams) and then describes Jungian dream interpretation (clinical concepts; the dream in Jungian theory; technique of dream interpretation; the relationship between dream ego and waking ego; Polanyi's theories); the clinical uses of dreams; dreams as indicators; dream recall; phenomena related to dreaming; the actual dream; personal dreams; and types of dreams. He concludes with examples of ways of enacting dream images.

Healing and Wholeness, by John A. Sanford. New York, Ramsey, N.J., and Toronto: Paulist Press, 1977 +p (162 + vii, incl. 5-p. index).

Sanford examines where healing comes from, drawing upon ancient and modern lore and wisdom, his own experience with mentors and people seeking help from him, and his own personal search for healing. Beginning with an introduction on contemporary psychological distress and the process of individuation, he discusses the relation of body, soul, and wholeness in terms of illness and health, followed by interpretations of the topics of ancient Greek healing mysteries; the healing emphasis of early Christianity; shamanism; the wisdom of the American Indian; and the perspective on healing furnished by Jung. He concludes with an analysis of personal healing by such means as relating to others, keeping a journal, taking care of the body through diet and exercise, meditation, active imagination, and the healing power of dreams.

Hermes and His Children, by Rafael L6pez-Pedraza. Zurich: Spring Publications, 1977p (Seminar Series, 13); Einsiedeln, Switzerland: Daimon Verlag, expanded edn. 1989p* (205 + 18 plates of drawings and paintings; 1st edn.: 1p. pref. by James Hillman, 1-p. foreword by Adolf Guggenbiihl-Craig).

Affirming that Jung was a Hermetic man who had an understanding of Hermes' psychology that guided him along the road to creativity, L6pezPedraza aims to "thieve Hermetically" from classical images and from the scholars in order to gain insights into archetypal images of Hermes and to carry them into psychotherapy. He examines mythology and scholarly works to provide the background for his study of the psychology of archetypes that constellate and appear in psychotherapy. He emphasizes the need to train one's self in the imagination basically needed for psychotherapy, and he provides insights into some of the most obscure phenomena of human character. He discusses Ovid's classic Metamorphoses, "The Homeric Hymn to Hermes," a tale of Homer (on the adultery of Aphrodite), engravings by Picasso, the Homeric "Hymn to Pan," and Priapus as son and father of Hermes.

Marriage: Dead or Alive, by Adolf Guggenbiihi-Craig. Zurich: Spring Publications, 1977p; Dallas: Spring Publications, repr. 1981p; 1986p* (126 pp.).

Affirming that the central issue in marriage is not happiness nor wellbeing, but the "soul's salvation," Guggenb dhl- Craig states that the objective of marriage involves two people who are trying to individuate. He discusses the topics of war and peace in marriage; marriage and family; the many faces of marriage and family life; well-being and salvation; individuation; marriage as one pathway of salvation; masculine and feminine; an individuation marriage; the nonsense of normal sexuality; sexuality and individuation; the demonic side of sexuality; divorce; and the relationship of salvation, wellbeing and individuation. He concludes with the slogan, "marriage is dead, long live marriage!"

Methods of Treatment in Analytical Psychology: The Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress for Analytical Psychology, Rome, 1977, edited by Ian F. Baker. Fellbach, West Germany: Adolf Bonz Verlag, 1980 (247, ind. 4-p. intro. by Gerhard Adler).

Among the twenty-two Congress papers in this volume, ten are contributions by authors whose books appear in this annotated bibliography. These are on the relationship to the psychological type of the analyst (Katherine Bradway and Jane Wheelwright); the methodology of dream interpretation (Dieckmann); principles of analytical psychotherapy in childhood (Fordham); active imagination (von Franz); alchemy and analytical psychology (Henderson); the therapeutic value of alchemical language (Hillman); active imagination questioned and discussed (Humbert); use of the dream in contemporary analysis (Lambert); imaginative activity versus interpretation of the dream (Perry); and problems for the psychotic patient and the therapist in achieving the symbolic situation (Redfearn). Others include essays on ego and image; children's drawings; archetypal sphere of effect; alchemy, Marx, and clinical imagination; dreams and psychological types; motivation in child therapy; delusion in analytical psychology; active imagination and type; psychotherapy in depressive psychotic states; establishing connections between two worlds; depressive delusion; and treatment of chronic psychoses.

Dreams and Healing, by John A. Sanford. New York, Ramsey, N.J., and Toronto: Paulist Press, 1978p* (164 + vi, ind. 10-p. index).

Feeling the need for a detailed and comprehensive book on dreams, especially as they relate to healing and soul, Sanford here combines a long section on understanding dreams with two sections dealing with dreams in the lives of a young man and of a forty-year-old woman. First, he discusses the topics of the spiritual heritage of dreams; King Nebuchadnezzar's dreams; the different levels of dreams; the healing power in dreams; the drama and structure of dreams; the use of dreams in therapy; and working with one's own dreams. In the second part, he interprets eight dreams of a young university student, whose clarity and impact in the setting of "ordinary life" resulted in guidance and eventual reawakening of his religious life. In the third part, he discusses five dreams (over a two-week span), whose unusual intensity is interpreted as 'an invitation to wholeness in the life of a middleaged married woman seeking a career.

Dying and Creating: A Searcb for Meaning, by Rosemary Gordon. London: Academic Press for the Society of Analytical Psychology, 1978 * (The Library of Analytical Psychology, vol. 4) (186, ind. 6-p. index, 4-p. bibl., 9-p. gloss.).

The theme of a search for meaning engages analytical psychologist Gordon in a wide search through myths, rituals, and clinical symptoms. She is looking for a parallelism in which dying as a process is similar to the process of creating, as both involve an acceptance of change and the ability to venture into the unknown. She begins with a background of social attitudes about death and then discusses Freud, Jung, and the death wish, followed by a pilot study of four dying patients who are on the threshold of death. Her explanation of the way in which individuals relate to the fact of death includes some African stories of birth and death, rites for the dead, and psychopathological ways of dealing with death. Her exposition of current psychological ideas on the nature of symbolization and the expression of creative processes by symbols and symbol formation leads to reflections on clinical technique. She deals with the nature of and hindrances to the creative process, concluding with an analysis of the intrapsychic interdependence of death, creation, and transformation.

Jesus the Therapist, by Hanna Wolff. (Ger.: Jesus als Psychotherapeut. Stuttgart: Radius Verlag, 1978.) Oak Park, Ill.: Meyer-Stone Books, 1987* +p* (178 + xiii, incl. 2-p. index, 5-p. ref. notes, 7-p. foreword by John Sanford).

Impressed by the frequency with which some Biblical expression to designate a psychic phenomenon or to encapsulate an insight would emerge in the course of her psychotherapeutic practice, Wolff characterizes Jesus as a therapist and a model of modern psychotherapy due to the abundance of his therapeutic insights in the New Testament. She discusses the topics of the will to be well; the courage for self-encounter; getting into training; the human image of the human being; and who is a genuine psychotherapist?

Jungian Psychotherapy: A Study in Analytical Psychology, by Michael Fordham. Chichester and New York: John Wiley, 1978 +p; London: Maresfield Library/H. Karnac Books, 1986p* (185 + x, incl. 9-p. index, 4-p. bibl.).

Maintaining that many of Jung's psychotherapeutic practices were based more on analytical method than is usually believed, Fordham defines analysis as a starting point for investigations that lay more emphasis than is usual on personal development in its social and cultural setting. He asserts the need to evolve a unique treatment method for each case, considering that the personality of the therapist enters into the procedures adopted. His topics include Jung's conception of psychotherapy; dreams; amplification and active imagination; the setting of analysis; starting analysis; transference and countertransference; some less-organized behavior of therapists; interpretation; the analysis of childhood and its limits; the origins of active imagination; terminating analysis; training; and the application of the therapeutic method.

The Shaman from Elko: Papers in Honor ofJoseph L. Henderson on His Seventy Fifth Birthday, edited by Gareth Hill. San Francisco: C. G. Jung Institute of San Francisco, 1978p; Boston: Sigo Press, repr. 1990 + p (272, incl. 5-p. list of Henderson's writings, 6 illus., 2-p. editor's foreword and chapter on the life and work of Henderson).

This book consists of twenty papers, contributed by professional colleagues and friends, honoring the life and work of Joseph Henderson. The first selections relate to his interest in Native American cultures and shamanism, including "The Navaho Prayer of Blessing" (Donald Sandner); "Shamanistic Principles of Initiation and Power" (William Reed); and "The Blessing Way Ceremony" (Maud Oakes). Clinically-oriented papers include "The Hidden Life of Mary Jo Spencer: Clinical Thoughts on Introversion and/or Schizoid Personality" (Thomas Kirsch); "Empathy in the Analytic Process" (Charles Klaif); "The Hierarchy of Symbols" (Julius Travis); "An Acute Schizophrenic Process Treated by Analytical Therapy" (Howard Levene); and "The Clinical Usefulness of an Initial Dream" (Renaldo Maduro). Other papers deal with culture, philosophy, and literary themes of psychological interest.

Archetypal Medicine, by Alfred J. Ziegler. (Get.: Morbismo: von der Besten aller Gesundheiten. Zurich: Schweizer Spiegel, 1979.) Dallas: Spring Publications, 1983p* (169 pp.).

Ziegler defines archetypal medicine as a type of psychosomatic medicine which tries to bring about change in disease symptoms through images which carry the symbolic essence of what is observed and are accompanied by a perceptible physical resonance. He draws upon Jungian concepts to seek causes for conditions of the psyche which appear as physical ailments full of symbolic meaning. He states that archetypal medicine's prerequisite does not lie so much in the capacity for registering sense perceptions as it does in subjective, introverted intuition and an understanding of symbols, commenting that "our shadows take on substance." Following a presentation of theory, he discusses the practice of archetypal medicine under the topics of asthmatic construction; itches and itching; cardiac dysrhythmia; anorexia nervosa; rheumatism; and pain and punishment. There are addenda on fever and on drinking and dryness.

The Art of Psychotherapy, by Anthony Storr. London- Martin Secker & Warburg with Heinemann Medical Books, 1979 +p*; New York: Methuen, 1980* +p*; New York: Routledge, repr. 1989p* (191 + x, incl. 5-p. index, endchapter ref. notes).

Recognizing a considerable debt to Jung's ideas and to his own general psychiatric training and reading, Storr provides a practical manual for the practice (and art) of psychotherapy, primarily for postgraduate doctors who are embarking upon specialist training. His view is that psychotherapy should be analytical and individual and that it is more concerned with understanding persons as whole beings and with changing attitudes than it is with abolishing symptoms directly. He proceeds systematically from the setting and the initial interview to establishing a pattern, making progress, interpretation, dreams, daydreams, paintings, writings, objectivity and intimate knowledge, and transference. He discusses the hysterical personality, the depressive personality, the obsessional personality, and the schizoid personality, concluding with comments on cure, termination, and results, and the factor of the personality of the psychotherapist.

Navaho Symbols of Healing, by Donald R. Sandner. New York and London: Harvest Book/Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1979p (290 + xii, incl. 16-p. bibl., 20 illus.).

In searching for the "ancient roots of our own healing disciplines," Jungian psychiatrist Sandner explores the general principles governing the process of symbolic healing as exemplified by the Navaho process of healing, which is the main substance of their religion. The healing process is not directed toward specific bodily symptoms, but it uses striking symbolic images to create harmony between the psyche and the forces around it in order to bring about change in the patients. Sandner's topics include symbolic healing; guardians of the symbols; the constituent parts of the Navaho religion and the whole of action; fear of possession; return to the origins; the ritual control of evil; the process of renewal through death and rebirth; mandalas of healing and the pollen path; the Navaho synthesis; and ancient and modern symbolic healing.

The Spiral Way: A Woman's Healing journey, by Aldo Carotenuto. (It.: La scala cbe scende nell'acqua, Rome: Editore Boringhieri, 1979.) Toronto: Inner City Books, 1986p* (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 25) (139, incl. 6-p. index, 6-p. ref. notes, 2-p. Jungian gloss., 2 illus.).

In order to illustrate the analytic process, Carotenuto presents a woman's case that covers five years of formal Jungian analysis and five further years of observation. Although outwardly healthy, the middle-aged woman expressed serious inner conflicts and private suffering, while her dreams and their interpretation indicated the times of transition. Carotenuto analyzes the sequence of dreams as: a gift (dream 1); dependence on the mother (2); a healing journey (3-4); temple and cross (5-6); action and transformation (7); music of analysis (8); quality of existence (9-10); a slight manipulation (11-14); depression and revelation (15-16); the analyst is tempted to give an answer (17-20); a religious development (21-23); tables of the law (2426); images of the psyche (27-28); stairs that go down to the water (29-30); false suffering (31-32); a vision of the world (33-34); and separation at end of analysis (35). He also discusses the question of the influence of the analyst and respect for patient's individuality.

Eros on Crutches: On the Nature of the Psychopath, by Adolf GuggenbfihlCraig. (Orig. subtitle: Reflections on Psychopathy and Amorality. Dallas: Spring Publications, 1980p) Dallas: Spring Publications, 1986p* (126 pp.).

Noting that a large portion of medical endeavors are concerned with psychosomatic and neurotic disorders, Swiss analyst Guggenbiihl-Craig examines the nature of the psychopath in terms of the archetype of the invalid, describing psychopathy as the invalidism of Eros, wherein something in the psyche is missing or markedly underdeveloped. He discusses the archetype of the invalid as an inborn pattern of behavior, a typically human situation in which all human beings come into the world deficient, lacking something; and they become more deficient as lives progress through accidents, illnesses, aging processes, and invalid complexes. Following his analysis of invalidism and of Eros, he discusses psychopaths in literature and the historical development of the term psychopathy, after which he analyzes five primary symptoms of psychopathy, namely, inability to love anything, missing or deficient sense of morality, lack of psychic development, chronic background of depression, and background of fear. Also described are secondary symptoms of psychopathy, compensated psychopaths, and the treatment of psychopaths.

The Longing for Paradise: Psychological Perspectives on an Archetype, by Mario Jacoby. (Ger.: Sehnsucht nach dem Paradies. Fellbach, West Germany: Adolf Bonz Verlag, 1980.) Santa Monica: Sigo Press, 1985 * + p* (229 + viii, ind. 7-p. index, 6-p. bibl., 8 illus.).

Considering that the "longing for paradise" (freedom from conflict, suffering, and deprivation) is frequently the more or less conscious motivation prompting people to begin an analysis, Jungian analyst Jacoby, initially intending to focus on the therapeutic process, circurnambulates the archetypal image of paradise through the realms of social psychology, ethnology, religion, theology, and anthropology. In the first part ("paradise as an image of primal bliss"), he discusses the relationship between mother and child, the mother archetype, infant paradise and infant hell, the father archetype, and motherhood and career, among other topics. The second part concerns a psychological interpretation of the Biblical tale of Paradise and the Fall, including original sin, moral code, superego and conscience, the problem of the shadow, and consciousness and striving for "bliss." He concludes with an interpretation of paradise as hope for the future in early Judaism and the New Testament; ideas of happiness in ancient Greek philosophy; medieval concepts of earthly paradise; the Self in Jung's psychology; and paradise and the process of individuation.

Money, Food, Drink, Fashion, and Analytic Training: Depth Dimensions of Physical Existence; The Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress for Analytical Psychology, San Francisco, 1980, edited by John Beebe. Fellbach-Oeffingen, West Germany, Adolf Bonz Verlag, 1983; Dallas: Spring Publications, 1983* (512 pp.).

This volume consists of forty-two papers contributed on the subjects of money (six papers); food, drink, and feast (five); fashion (two); training (eight); clinical practice and research (fourteen); and theoretical explorations (seven). Nineteen are presented by authors whose other works appear in this annotated bibliography. They are "The Training of Shadow and the Shadow of Training" (Berry); "Training of Analytical Psychologists and Xhosa Medicine Men" (Buhrmann); "Myth and Money" (Covitz); "Projections: Soul and Money" (Guggenbiihl-Craig); "Polanyi and Jungian Psychology: Dreamego and Waking-ego" (James Hall); "Soul and Money" (Hillman); "Has Training Gone Too Far?" (Jacoby); "Coins and Psychological Change" (Lockhart); "Self-realization in the Ten Oxherding Pictures" (Miyuki); "The Psyche, Wealth, and Power" (Perry); "Fragmentary Vision: A Central Training Aim" (Samuels); "The Concealed Body Language of Anorexia Nervosa" (Shorter); "The Singer-Loomis Inventory of Personality" (Singer); "The Image of the Jungian Analyst and the Problem of Authority" (Spiegelman); "Coupling[Uncoupling: Evolution of the Marriage Archetype" (R. Stein); "Fee-less Practice and Soul Work" (Vasavada); "Reassessing Femininity and Masculinity" (Whitmont); "Festival, Communion, and Mutuality" (Willeford); and "The Hydrolith: On Drinking and Dryness in Archetypal Medicine" (Ziegler).

The Owl Was a Baker's Daughter: Obesity, Anorexia Nervosa, and the Repressed Feminine, by Marion Woodman. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1980p* (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 4) (139, incl. 5-p. index, 2-p. bibl., 2-p. gloss. of Jungian terms, 9 illus.).

Woodman explores the meaning of the feminine and suggests practical ways women can learn to listen to its authentic voice and discover and love the goddess lost within her own rejected body. She discusses the problems of obesity and of anorexia nervosa in terms of the repressed feminine and the need for the women to come to grips with their femininity. Following her presentation of the experimental background of primary and secondary obesity, Jung's association experiment and its application to obesity, and the nature of complexes and personality traits, she analyzes the relationships of body and psyche, including body metabolism; some contemporary views on obesity; how stress influences obesity; pathological effects of fear and rage; clinical approaches to obesity; and Jung's concept of psyche and body. She interprets three case studies and then concludes with an analysis of the loss of the feminine by considering the father complex, the mother complex, and food, sexuality, and religion complexes.

Psyche and Substance: Essays on Homeopathy in the Light of Jungian Psychology, by Edward C. Whitmont. Richmond, Calif.: North Atlantic Books, 1980; Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1983* +p* (208, incl. 4-p. index).

Writing from many years of experience as a Jungian analyst and practicing homeopath, Whitmont examines analogies in homeopathy and analytical psychology and presents synchronicity or meaningful non-causality as a unifying principle in psychosomatics. Following an overview of the practice of homeopathy, psychic and somatic interrelationships, the law of similars in analytical psychology, and nature and symbol and imaginal reality, he discusses homeopathic remedies and their archetypal forms. In putting homeopathy into practice, he analyzes the problem of soul-body relationship in prescribing and the problems of chronic prescribing, psychosomatics, and surgery. He concludes with case studies (allergic diathesis; new or forgotten indications of tuberculin; intestinal nosodes; and the chronic miasms).

A Secret Symmetry: Sabina Spielrein between Jung and Freud, by Aldo Carotenuto. (It.: Diario de una Segreta Simmetria. Rome: Astrolabio, 1980.) New York: Pantheon Books, 1982; 1984p; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984p* (250, incl. 10-p. index, 21-p. ref. notes, 3 illus. 2-p. bibl. of Spielrein, 4-p. foreword by William McGuire).

Drawing on a diary (1909-12) of Sabina Spielrein (one of young Dr. Jung's patients in Burgh6lzli mental hospital in 1904) and on her letters to Jung and to Freud and Freud's letters to her, Carotenuto examines the very complex love-hate situation that saw the three principals struggling in a "trapped" predicament. He examines the story of Spielrein, who was born in the Ukraine in 1885, wrote her thesis on schizophrenia for a Zurich medical diploma, became a psychoanalyst in Freud's establishment, and practiced in Geneva and in the USSR after the Revolution.

Analysis, Repair, and Individuation, by Kenneth Lambert. London and New York: Academic Press for Society of Analytical Psychology, 1981* (The Library of Analytical Psychology, vol. S) (234 + xiv, incl. 10-p. index, 7-p. bibl., 16-p. gloss.).

In considering the matter of chaos, disintegration, and the conflict of opposites out of which various kinds of integration can arise, Lambert demonstrates the way in which clinical activities are being used by modern Jungians to help the psychological movement of patients into individuation. Following his discussions on individuation and the mutual influence of psychoanalysis and analytical psychology, as well as personal psychology and the choice of analytic school, he analyzes the topics of relationships of individuation and the personality of the analyst; resistance and counterresistance; archetypes, object relations and internal objects; reconstruction; transference, countertransference and interpersonal relations; dreams and dreaming; and the individuation process.

Sandplay Studies: Origins, Theory, and Practice, coordinated by Gareth Hill. (An anthology of original papers by Katherine Bradway, Karen A. Signell, Geraldine H. Spare, Charles T. Stewart, Louis H. Stewart, and Clare Thompson.) San Francisco: C. G. Jung Institute of San Francisco, 1981; Boston: Sigo Press, rev. 1990 +p (238 + xiii, incl. 10-p. index, 22-p. bibl., 76 illus., foreword by Dora Kalff).

In this collection of nine papers by six authors who use sandplay therapy in connection with their practice of Jungian analysis, the contributors demonstrate the broad range of applications of the "pictures" or "worlds" revealed by the miniature figures placed by a patient in a sand tray. There are two papers by Bradway ("Developmental Stages in Children's Sand Worlds"; "A Woman's Individuation Through Sandplay"); two by Signell ("The Use of Sandplay with Men"; "The Sandplay Process in Men's Development"); one by Spare ("Are There Any Rules?-Musings of a Peripatetic Sandplayer"); one by Charles Stewart ("The Developmental Psychology of Sandplay"); two by Louis Stewart ("Play and Sandplay"; "Sandplay and the C. G. Jung Institute of San Francisco"); and one by Thompson ("Variations on a Theme by Lowenfeld-Sandplay in Focus").

Addiction to Perfection: The Still Unravished Bride; A Psychological Study, by Marion Woodman. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1982p* (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 12) (204, incl. 5-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 2-p. gloss. of Jungian terms, 20 illus.).

Suggesting that many men and women are addicted in one way or another because the patriarchal culture emphasizes specialization and perfection, Woodman proposes the recognition of the Jungian ideal of wholeness rather than perfection as the goal of psychological development. She examines the rituals of compulsive consumption and the split between body and spirit, whose healing requires the recovery of a feminine ground of being in which the language of the body itself must be heard. Her topics include sacred and demonic ritual; addiction to perfection; obesity and anorexia; assent to the goddess (the Great Mother); rape and the demon lover; and the ravished bride (on the integration of unconscious contents and the acceptance of one's own biological and spiritual identity). The nature of the feminine is explored through case histories, dreams, mythology and literature, food rituals, body imagery, sexuality, and creativity.

Alcoholism and Women: The Background and the Psychology, by Jan Bauer. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1982p* (Studies in Jungian Analysis by Jungian Analysts, 11) (140, ind. 4-p. index, 2-p. bibl., 2-p. gloss. of Jungian terms).

Recognizing that there are important general traits in backgrounds and symptoms that are shared by all alcoholics, and having been impressed during the years of her training in analytical psychology by the similarities between the individual approach of Jungian analysis and the collective approach of Alcoholics Anonymous, Bauer writes about the problem of alcoholism from the point of view of the woman drinker. Using case material, sociological studies, dream analysis, and archetypal patterns from mythology, she discusses the topics of the medical background and theoretical models of alcoholism; Jungian concepts of alcoholism; archetypal patterns of alcoholism; the woman alcoholic (four case studies); psychological factors; and archetypal motifs. Appended are the twelve steps and the twelve traditions of AA, along with the letters between Jung and "Bill W.," cofounder of Alcoholics Anonymous.

Echo's Subtle Body: Contributions to an Archetypal Psychology, by Patricia Berry. Dallas: Spring Publications, 1982p* (198 pp.).

Berry groups these ten essays, written between 1972 and 1982, under the headings of "Woman" ("What's the Matter with Mother?"; "Neurosis and the Rape of the Dogma of Gender"); "Dream" ("An Approach to the Dream"; "Defense and Telos, or Ultimate End"); "Poetics" ("Virginities of Image"; "Echo's Passion"; "Hamlet's Poisoned Ear"; "Stopping: A Mode of Animation"); and "Shadow" ("Reduction"; "The Training of Shadow and the Shadow of Training"). She provides insights gained by her clinical experience as a Jungian analyst, dream interpretation, and references to mythology as well as feminine studies. The collection's title is taken from a 1979 conference on poem, myth, and soul, at which she presented the paper on Echo, whose passionate love grief causes her body to waste away, leaving only her voice, a "body in air."

Jungian Analysis, edited by Murray Stein. LaSalle, Ill.: Open Court Publishing Co., 1982* (Reality of the Psyche Series, vol. 2); Boston and London: New Science Library/Shambhala Publications, 1984p* (411 + xvi, incl. 7-p. index, ref. notes,5-p. gloss., editor's preface).

Intentionally limited to the practice of analytical psychology, this book consists of nineteen essays by twenty-two American analysts. Following a contribution on the history and practice of Jungian analysis (Henderson) and the editor's discussion of the aims and goals of Jungian analysis, the essays are grouped under four sections, namely, "The Structure and Dynamics of Analysis" ("Establishing and Maintaining the Analytical Structure" (Alexander McCurdy); "Transference/Countertransference: A Jungian Perspective" (Ann Ulanov); "Countertransference/Transference" (Harriet Machtiger); "Termination" (Joseph Wheelwright) ); "Methods of Analysis" ("The Use of Dreams and Dream Interpretation in Analysis" (James Hall) "The Use of Psychological Typology in Analysis" (Alex Quenk and Naomi Quenk); "Active Imagination in Practice" (Janet Dallett); "Dance/Movement and Body Experience in Analysis" (Joan Chodorow); "Sandplay and Jungian Analysis" (Louis Stewart); "Group Therapy and Analysis" (Thayer Greene) ); "Special Topics in Analytical Practice" ("Treatment of Children in Analytical Psychology" (Edith Sullwold); "Analysis with the Aged" (Bruce Baker and Jane Wheelwright); "Gender Identity and Gender Roles: Their Place in Analytic Practice" (Katherine Bradway); "Psychopathology and Analysis" (Donald Sandner and John Beebe); "Recent Influences on the Practice of Jungian Analysis" (Whitmont) ); and "The Education and Training of Jungian Analysts" ("The Education of the Analyst" (Singer); "Analysis in Training" (Thomas Kirsch)).

Masochism: A Jungian View, by Lyn Cowan. Dallas: Spring Publications, 1982p (137 + x, ind. 7-p. ref. notes).

Characterizing masochism as essential reality, before it is anything else, Cowan views it as a reflection of the soul in its tormented, most inarticulate moments-not a mere perversion, distortion, or deviation. Her psychological task is to find meaning and value in masochism as a symbol representing intense activity in the psyche, viewing masochism as an experience of humiliation and pleasure at roughly the same time. Following a discussion of the possibilities of perversion and a summary of masochism and modern American psychotherapy, she presents a Jungian view of the topics of humiliation (getting down to basics); pleasure ("the play's the thing"); Eros as sadist; mortification (alchemical masochism); the contract as sadist (the purpose of a masochistic contract being to ensure the unfairness of power); martyrdom (the mania of misery); Prometheus (a mythological case study); Dionysus (the madness of masochism); the fateful move in masochism; and masochistic exhibitionism.

Narcissism and Character Transformation: The Psychology of Narcissistic Character Disorders, by Nathan Schwartz-Salant. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1982p* (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 9) (190, ind. 5p. index, 4-p. bibl., 2-p. Jungian gloss., 14 illus.).

Combining both Jungian and psychoanalytic points of view (particularly Freud and Kohut) in the field of clinical depth analysis, Schwartz-Salant broadens the clinical perspective on the issue posed by narcissism and the problem of identity. Following an introductory discussion of narcissism and the problem of identity, he presents stage one of transformation in terms of clinical issues and of the mythology of transformation of the masculine and then analyzes modes of relating with an emphasis on body awareness in the relationship of the somatic and psychic unconscious. He concludes with an interpretation of the mythology of stage two (emergence of feminine power) and clinical issues of this stage of transformation.

Rape and Ritual: A Psychological Study, by Bradley A. Te Paske. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1982p * (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 10) (1S7, incl. 6-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 2-p. gloss. of Jungian terms).

In confronting such a pressing and omnipresent contemporary problem Te Paske begins with the mundane facts of criminal rape in order to pave the way to consider adequately each angle of approach to the problem with the individual personality in mind. He analyzes the psychology of rape under the topics of the crime of rape; the victim of rape; a review of theories; the psychology of the rapist; archetypal background of rape; rape fantasy and individuation; the homosexual component; and ritual and sacrifice. Combining theory, mythology, and clinical material from his Jungian practice, he interprets the role of the Great Mother, the archetype of the masculine, of anima and Eros, and of ego and shadow.

St. George and the Dandelion: Forty Years of Practice as a Jungian Analyst, by Joseph B. Wheelwright, edited by Audrey Hilliard Blodgett. San Francisco: C. G. Jung Institute of San Francisco, 1982* (109 + xiii, incl. 5-p. index, preface by Erik Erikson, foreword by Gregory Bateson).

From his long experience as a Jungian analyst who trained with Jung himself, Wheelwright presents a casual yet serious account of his life and work, acknowledging indebtedness to Jung, Freud, Henry Stack Sullivan, and Erik Erikson. He provides anecdotal accounts of his experience with a delightful sense of humor. Following his introductory "Imprimis," he examines his beginnings and then his understanding of Jungian psychological concepts, as well as comments on attitudes and values in therapeutic practice (screening, patient fees, analyst-patient relationship, diagnosis, training analysis, and lay analysis). He also includes a discussion of anima-animus, a 2S- page essay on psychological types (published in 1973 by the San Francisco Jung Institute), a 10-page article on marriage in the second half of life (with ,~the same husband or wife with whom one started), along with accounts of three selected encounters with Jung.

The Differing Uses of Symbolic and Clinical Approaches in Practice and Theory: The Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress for Analytical Psychology, Jerusalem, 1983, edited by Luigi Zoja and Robert Hinshaw. Zurich: Daimon Verlag, 1986* (369 + viii).

Reflecting one of Jung's most basic tenets that a therapist must find his or her own individual way of working, the twenty-five papers in this volume (including opening and closing addresses and two review papers on the Congress) vary widely. Seven are contributions by authors whose books are in this annotated bibliography: "Images of the Inferior Analyst" (Bosnak); "Depressed Patients and the Coniunctio" (Hubback); "Cultural Anxiety" (L6pez-Pedraza); "Jerusalem: The Age of Plastic" (Newman); "The Winning of Conscious Choice: The Emergence of Symbolic Activity" (Redfearn); "The symbolic Life of Man" (Sandner); and "Horroris Morbus, Unit of Disease and Image of Ailing" (Ziegler).

Healing Fiction, by James Hillman. Barrytown, N.Y.: Station Hill Press, 1983* +p* (145 + xii, incl. 13-p. ref. notes, 4-p. publisher's preface).

In revising the act of therapy into an imaginative act, in which imagination embodies the faculty of transformation itself, Hillman presents the psyche's mode of operation as fiction and emphasizes the primary psychological problem as that of "reading" the story as visionary literature. His three essays on the subject are: a round with Freud ("The Fiction of Case History"), Jung's contribution to "Know thyself" ("The Pandaemoniurn of Images"), and Adler's imagination of inferiority ("What Does the Soul Want?"). He offers as Jung's outstanding contribution to Western culture a psychological method that responds to the most persistent psychological need from Oedipus and Socrates through Hamlet and Faust, the need for Self knowledge. He speaks of poetics in the context of psychology and projects a two-way connection between psychology and literature that leads to Soulmaking.

Images of the Self. The Sandplay Therapy Process, by Estelle L. Weinrib. Boston: Sigo Press, 1983* +p* (172 + xvii, incl. 5-p. index, 2-p. bibl., 27 illus.).

Considering sandplay as a nonverbal, nonrational form of therapy that reaches a preverbal level of the psyche, Weinrib believes that a patient's creation of "pictures" with miniature figures in a sand tray will enable the autonomous tendency deep in the unconscious for the psyche to heal itself. The first part is devoted to a discussion of sandplay therapy theory and practice, in which Weinrib presents eight basic concepts and characterizes sandplay as a way of transformation and a safe outlet for aggression, feeling, and creating. She makes a comparison of verbal analysis and sandplay. In the second part, she provides a detailed analysis of a case study, whose phases include penetration to the personal unconscious; actuation of instincts; beginning of father- complex resolution; appearance of the nascent ego; centering; resolution of paranoid inflation; differentiation and movement toward connection of masculine and feminine elements in the personality; constellation of the self; separation from father and reconciliation; appearance of symbols of renewal; and the emergence of the anima and the birth of a new consciousness.

Inter Views: Conversations with Laura Pozzo on Psychotherapy, Biography, Love, Soul, Dreams, Work, Imagination, and the State of the Culture, by James Hillman. New York: Harper & Row, 1983; New York: Colophon Books/Harper & Row, 1984p (198 + viii, ind. 4-p. index).

Hillman characterizes this lively interview/conversation as an Italian journey of the Northern imagination in that he views his orientation toward psychology as "Mediterranean" or "Southern" (mythical, passionately intellectual, aesthetic, urban). The topics are pathologizing and soul; psychoanalysis and schools; therapy and dreams and the imaginal; a running engagement with Christianity; on being biographical; old and new: Senex and Puer; writing; working; and loving.

Starving Women: A Psychology of Anorexia Nervosa, by Angelyn Spignesi. Dallas: Spring Publications, 1983* (138 + xii, ind. 4-p. index).

Resting on assumptions (from the works of Freud, Jung, and Hillman) that the underlying psychic realm permeates everyday sense-perceptions, thoughts, emotions, values, attitudes, and behaviors, Spignesi explores the theme of a woman's relation to the psychic underworld. She tells the story of the anorexic-bulimic "from within the recesses of this psyche," beginning with data from literal anorexics and then going deeper to examine imagery metaphor that are produced spontaneously and affect their bodily existence. Her analyses and interpretations come under imaginative headings mother and oppositionalism (the anorexic and methodology; cadaverous ale); female of borders (ritual sacrifice; deficient ego: polymorphous child soul); tyrant of fat (hyperactivity: tyrant's drive; bulimia and stealing); mother of skeletal lady; the gaping mouth; Gaia's sickle; and imaginal rape.

Windows of the Soul, by Robert Kugelmann. Lewisburg, Perm.: Bucknell U. Press, 1983*; London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1983* (Studies in Jungian Thought) (258, ind. 7-p. index, 11-p. bibl.).

Kugelmann aims to restore metaphor to scientific language in order to ,~bring the body back into awareness by means of an imaginal consciousness ~that perceives the body in its soulful entirety. His theme is the eye, organ of Insight, whose imaginal anatomy reveals the soul at the core. He provides ,historical reflections on glaucoma and discusses primary glaucoma, that common pathology of the eye which refuses to stay within the eye and thereby ,affects various areas of the patient's life. By identifying archaic personages (Glaucus, Old Man of the Sea, Athena Glaucopis, Perseus, and Medusa of the Stony Eyes, among others) through whom psychological healing can become possible, he suggests that clarification of the experience of glaucoma enables patients, physicians, and therapists to bring healing to the person and not just to the eye.

Words as Eggs: Psyche in Language and Clinic, by Russell A. Lockhart. Dallas: Spring Publications, 1983p* (233, ind. 5-p. index).

Placing the thirteen essays in this book in chronological order, Lockhart forms a deliberate path, from his first essay, "On the Forgotten Psyche of Behavior Therapy" to the most recent, "Some Strange and Weird Experiences." In between are the essays "Myths Alive"; "Listening to the Voices of 'Psychosis"; "Cancer in Myth and Dream" (archetypal relation between dreams and disease); "What Whale Does America Pursue"; "Words as Eggs"; "Eros in Language, Myth, and Dream"; "Psyche in Hiding"; "Eros at the Well"; "Coins and Psychological Change"; and "Metaphor as Illness." He views the essays as stepping stones in his symbolic life that is being pushed for realization by the self, not the ego.

The Analytic Encounter: Transference and Human Relationship, by Mario Jacoby. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1984p* (Studies in Jungian Psychology by jungian Analysts, 15) (125, incl. 5-p. index, 2-p. bibl., 2-p. gloss. of jungian terms, 8 illus.).

In these essays originally presented as lectures on the psychological subtleties involved in the transference and countertransference relationship between patient and therapist in the analytic encounter, Jacoby discusses the everyday problems of analytic practice and the archetypal depth-dimension (discovered by Jung) that lies behind personal involvements. Following an introduction to the analytic encounter (Freud's view on transference, Jung's contribution, and a case example), he examines the topics of transference and countertransference; narcissism and transference; transference and human relationship; human relationship in analysis; countertransference and the needs of the analyst; and erotic love in analysis.

Archetypal Consultation: A Service Delivery Model for Native Americans, by Eduardo Duran. New York: Peter Lang Publishing Co., 1984p* (American University Studies, Series VIII, Psychology, vol. 2) (157 + xi, ind. 7-p. bibl., 1-p. notes, 3-p. gloss. of analytical terms).

Utilizing some of the ideas proposed by Jung, Duran attempts to solve some of the problems facing Native Americans in the field of mental health. He begins with a literature review, including dream phenomena and their relevance to Native Americans, and dreams in orthodox approaches to therapy, followed by a discussion of analytical psychology and its relevance to the Native American psyche. He proposes a theoretical approach that considers previous difficulties with the delivery of mental health services; and he presents a model of archetypal consultation that addresses Native American customs, concepts of illness, and healing.

A Casebook: Applications of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in Counseling, by Judith A. Provost. Gainesville, Fla.: Center for Applications of Psychological Type, 1984p* (86 + ii, incl. 2-p. bibl.).

This casebook is written for counselors and therapists who already have had an introduction to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Jung's theory of psychological types. In it, Provost demonstrates the applications of the MBTI in individual counseling and psychotherapy with eighteen cases from actual counseling experiences that include people of various ages, though primarily college-age (18-24), with above-average intelligence and representing all sixteen types of personality. Following a discussion of the relationship of type development to counseling and the use of the MBTI, she makes observations on the types of clients in counseling, client-counselor,relationships, therapies, and conclusions about psychological type and the "Counseling relationship, concluding with a summary of the value of the MBTI.

Hags and Heroes: A Feminist Approach to jungian Psychotherapy with Couples, by Polly Young-Eisendrath. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1984p* (Studies in jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 18) (184, incl. 6-p. index, 4-p. bibl., 4-p. ref. notes).

Bringing together the archetypal theory and practice of Jungian psychotherapy with the interpersonal perspective of Henry Stack Sullivan and integrating them with a feminist viewpoint, Young-Eisendrath focuses on an understanding of how individual complexes interfere with harmonious relationships. She draws upon clinical experience with many couples in collaboration with co-therapist Ed Epstein to provide guidelines and practical techniques to revitalize love relationships. She writes within the context of the story of Sir Gawain and Lady Ragnell, a story about power, weakness, heroics, and conflict from the era of the Knights of the Round Table, in which each cherished the other's autonomy as if it were his own and cared for the other's needs in the same way. She emphasizes a revaluing of the feminine, principle and a reassessment of feminine authority.

Living in Two Worlds: Communication Between a White Healer and Her Black Counterparts, by M. Vera Buhrmann. Capetown: Human & Rousseau, 1984; Wilmette, Ill.: Chiron Publications, 1986p* (108, incl. 4-p. bibl., 2-p. gloss., 8 illus.).

Based on an experiential research method carried out among indigenous Xhosa healers in South Africa, this work by Jungian analyst Buhrmann shows that what is called "magic" in the healing systems is not "magical" in the usual sense of the word but is based on sound principles of depth ,,psychology, especially those of Jung. She shares her experience in order to give some understanding of the meaningfulness and the effectiveness of native methods, including aspects of the treatment of emotional disturbances, the interpretation of dreams, ritual healing dances, and river ceremonies. She provides a background analysis of the concepts of depth psychology, Xhosa cosmology, and categories of illness.

Psychological Types and Psychotherapy, by Alex T. Quenk. Gainesville, Fla.: Center for Applications of Psychological Types, 1984p (54, ind. 3-p. bibl.).

Using a dynamic-process model of Jung's psychological typology, Quenk relates it not only to patterns of adaptation but also to psychotherapy. Following an introductory discussion on typology and character, he discusses the topics of the auxiliary function; type and adaptation; relationships of type to transference and to countertransference and the analytic process, and psychological type in relation to individuation. He presents many clinical examples from individual, group, and marital therapy to show the effects of typology on the choice of therapy and therapists and on procedures within the therapeutic process.

Transference / Countertransference, edited by Nathan Schwartz-Salant and Murray Stein. Wilmette, Ill.: Chiron Publications, 1984p* (206 + iv, incl. end-chapter bibl. notes, 2-p. editors' preface).

Consisting of nine essays on the subject of the transference and countertransference, this first issue of Chiron: A Review of Jungian Analysis contains the following contributions: "Psychological Types in Transference, Countertransference, and the Therapeutic Interaction" (John Beebe); "Successful and Unsuccessful Interventions in Jungian Analysis" (William Goodheart); "Dreams and Transference/Countertransference: The Transformative Field" (James Hall); "Reflections on the Transference/Countertransference Process with Borderline Patients" (Harriet Machtiger); "Transference/Countertransference Between Woman Analyst and Wounded Girl Child" (Betty DeShong Meador); "Archetypal Factors Underlying Sexual Acting-out in the Transference/Countertransference Process" (Nathan Schwartz-Salant); "Power, Shamanism, and Maieutics in the Countertransference" (Murray Stein); "Transference/Countertransference Issues with Women in the First Stage of Animus Development" (Florence Wiedemann); and "Transference and Countertransference in Analysis Dealing with Eating Disorders" (Marion Woodman).

Abandonment, edited by Nathan Schwartz-Salant and Murray Stein. Wilmette, Ill.: Chiron Publications, 1985p* (237 + iv, incl. end-chapter bibl. notes, 4 illus.).

The second issue of Chiron: A Review of Jungian Analysis contains nine essays on the subject of abandonment. These are "Dream Motifs Accompanying the 'Abandonment' of an Analytic Practice" (Berry-Hillman); "Symbol and Ritual in Melancholia: The Archetype of the Divine Victim" (Tristan Cornes); "Abandonment in Infancy (Michael Fordham); "Birth's Cruel Secret" (Gilda Frantz); "Abandonment and Deintegration of the Primary Self" (Renaldo Maduro); "Perilous Beginnings: Loss, Abandonment, and Transformation" (Harriet Machtiger); "Abandonment and Restitution in Psychosis and Psychotic Character" (Jeffrey Satinover); "Abandonment, Wish, and 34ove in the Blues" (William Willeford); and "Abandonment in the Creative Woman" (Woodman).

Anatomy of the Psyche: Alchemical Symbolism in Psychotherapy, by Edward F. Edinger. LaSalle, Ill.: Open Court Publishing Co., 1985* +p* (Reality of the Psyche Series, vol. IV) (260 + xix, incl. 20-p. index, 8-p. bibl., 100 illus.).

Published first as a series of articles in Quadrant between 1978 and ,1982, these essays by Edinger continue Jung's study of alchemy by examining certain experiential modes of the individuation process that appear in alchemical symbolism. Drawing upon Jung's discovery of the reality of the psyche, Edinger explores religion and literary scriptures as well as the 44gropings" of the protosciences, such as alchemy, astrology, and pre-Socratic philosophy, in order to understand the phenomenology of the objective ,psyche. His goal is to present an anatomy of the psyche that is as objective as ,die anatomy of the body, an ordering of psychic facts. He throws new light ,,on the basic patterns of increasing consciousness in the psychotherapeutic process by means of amplification of the alchemical opus in its operations of Icinatio, solutio, coagulatio, sublimatio, mortificatio, separatio, and conunctio which make up the alchemical transformation and symbolize the process of individuation.

Birth, Death, and Transcendence in Psychotherapy, by Stanislav Grof. Albany: State U. of New York Press, 1985* +p* (466 + xviii, 10-p. bibl., 11-p. ref. notes, 45 illus.).

Jung to be the "first modern psychologist." He distinguishes Jung's methods from Freud's psychoanalytic approach of finding rational explanations for all psychic phenomena by tracing them back to biological roots in linear causality. Grof cites Jung's scientific procedures as penetrating deeply into the transpersonal realm to formulate a system of psychology different from any of Freud's followers. He supports Jung's concept of synchronicity as an awareness that linear causality is not the only mandatory connecting principle in nature. His own approach to psychotherapy involves deep experiential processes, such as psychedelic therapy and holonomic integration. His thesis moves from the nature of reality to the dimensions of the human psyche and then to the topics of integration of approaches; the architecture of emotional disorders; dilemmas and controversies of traditional psychiatry; a new understanding of the psychotherapeutic process; and new perspectives in psychotherapy and self exploration.

Forms of Feeling: The Heart of Psychotherapy, by Robert F. Hobson. London: Tavistock Publications, 1985* +p*; New York: Tavistock with Methuen, 1985; New York: Ark Paperbacks/Routledge, Chapman & Hall, 1988p* (318 + xvi, incl. 9-p. index, 10-p. bibl.).

Hobson presents his autobiography as a psychotherapist along with a method he has developed for learning how to relate to oneself and others. He describes the heart of the matter as a two- person relationship in which one hears the "true voice of feeling" (as the first part of the book is called). In the second part he discusses a model of psychotherapy, love and loss, and needs, conflict, and avoidance. He concludes with a section on "the heart of a psychotherapist."

The Pregnant Virgin: A Process of Psychological Transformation, by Marion Woodman. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1985p* (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 21) (204, incl. 7-p. index, 7-p. ref. notes, 29 illus.).

Using the concept of the process of psychological pregnancy (the virgin forever a virgin, forever pregnant, forever open to possibilities), Woodman examines ways of restoring the unity of body and soul, suggesting that immortality is a reality contained within mortality. Drawing on her Jungian analytic practice with its analysis of hundreds of dreams, she explores the search for personal identity and relationships, including celebration of the feminine both in women and men. She begins with the symbolism of the chrysalis, then discusses abandonment in the creative woman, psyche-soma awareness, the ritual journey, further thoughts on addiction, and yin, yang, and Jung. She concludes with a section on modern initiation.

The Wise Old Man: Healing Through Inner Images, by Pieter Middelkoop. (Dutch: Oude wijze man. Rotterdam: Lemniscaat, 1985) Boston and Shaftesbury: Shambhala Publications, 1989p* (184 + x, incl. 4-p. bibl., 3-p. ref. notes, 2-p. intro. by Robert Bosnak).

Linking his ideas on inner images to Jung's personality model, whose center Middelkoop calls the core of the Self, Middelkoop develops his "imagination therapy" with the symbolic personification of the archetypal Wise Old Man as inner source of wisdom to guide the individual to healing d wholeness. Using inner images as the starting point of therapy, he describes and explains several sequences of imagination by different people different backgrounds. The first sequence deals with the processes of the and the unconscious, at first following divergent courses but eventually weaving together; and the second involves the conflict of the different unconscious forces in the imaginal world from which the ego at first seems to be isolated. But gradually the ego begins to take part in bringing about an gration within the whole person. The third sequence concerns difficulties sometimes shared by the individual with large numbers of people. He concludes with a discussion of theoretical and technical aspects of the world the Self.

Working with the Dreaming Body, by Arnold Mindell. Boston and London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985p* (133, incl. 7-p. index, 8-p. ref. notes, 1 illus.).

Writing for the layperson as well as the professional in the search for Meaning behind physical disease, Mindell introduces a single theoretical framework that concentrates on the relationship between dreams and body problems, using case reports, communication theory, dream and body work, Jungian psychology, and even a "smattering" of physics. Asserting that body therapies are split off from dream therapies and that dream therapy normally ,is done without reference to body feelings, he presents experiences from his work with normal, as well as psychotic, physically ill, and dying patients in training seminars, mental clinics, hospitals, and his own analytic practice. ~,Among the topics covered are "flashes of insight"; from illness to inner ~,.development; illness and projection; the dreambody in a fairy tale; the dreambody in relationships; the world as a dreambody; cultural change; and, working alone on one's self.

~~The Body in Analysis, edited by Nathan Schwartz-Salant and Murray Stein. Wilmette, Ill.: Chiron Publications, 1986p* (The Chiron Clinical Series) (220 + iv, incl. end-chapter ref. notes, 14 illus.).

Consisting of eight essays on the subject of the body in analysis, this third issue of Chiron: A Review of Jungian Analysis contains contributions by Jungian analysts on "The Body in Child Psychotherapy" (John A. B. Allen); "The Body as Symbol: Dance/movement in Analysis" (Joan Chodorow); "Body Language and the Self: The Search for Psychic Truth" (Hub -back); "Getting in Touch and Touching in Analysis " (Jacoby); "Ceremonies Of the Emerging Ego in Psychotherapy" (Perera); "The Subjective Body in Clinical Practice" (Sandner); "Bare Bones: The Aesthetics of Arthritis" (Ronald Schenk); and "The Subtle-body Concept in Clinical Practice" (Schwartz-Salant).

Carl Jung and Soul Psychology, edited by E. Mark Stern. (Orig. publ.: Voices: The Art and Science of Psychotherapy. American Academy of Psychotherapists, 1986.) New York and London: Haworth Press, 1986 (192, incl. end chapter references, 20 photos of authors).

Containing twenty-four essays and comments by twenty-two collaborators, most of which are less than nine pages in length, this collection consists of seven contributions by Jungian analysts, including essays on "When the Spirits Come Back" (Dallett); "Soul-loss and Restoration: A Study in Countertransference" (John Haule); "Soul and Spirit" (Hillman); "Creativity and the Healing of the Soul" (Phillip McGowan); "The Wandering Uterus: Dream and the Pathologized Image" (Stanton Marlan); "The Lumen Naturae: Soul of the Psychotherapeutic Relationship" (Marilyn Nagy); and "The Incest Wound and the Marriage Archetype" (Robert M. Stein).

A Critical Dictionary of Jungian Analysis, edited by Andrew Samuels, Bani Shorter, and Fred Plaut. London and New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986* + p* (171, incl. 3-p. index, 6-p. bibl.).

Considering Jungian terminology to be unfamiliar to many readers, the editors have created a dictionary of Jungian terms containing 192 entries arranged alphabetically, from "abaissement du niveau mental," "abreaction," and "acting out" to "word association test" and "wounded healer." The dictionary contains (a) terms and ideas introduced or developed primarily by Jung; (b) terms and ideas in general usage in psychodynamics but used in a particular way by Jung; (c) ordinary words used by Jung in a particular way; (d) major terms introduced and developed by other analytical psychologists; and (e) psychoanalytic terms which were adapted or extended by Jung.

Emotional Child Abuse: The Family Curse, by Joel D. Covitz. Boston: Sigo Press, 19 8 6 * + p * (162 + xii, incl. 2-p. bibl.).

Covitz believes that psychological child abuse often occurs because there is a lack of equality in the family system and lack of respect for the "genuine self, which results in a destructive chain of narcissistic disorders that is perpetuated through the generations. He looks behind the unhealthy narcissistic, egotistical, "me-first" behavior of the adult to find that this person's healthy narcissistic needs were not met as a child. Presenting a kind of ~guidebook for the development of a well-adjusted child-parent bond that is ',free from the most blatant to the most subtle forms of abuse, he first discusses roots of narcissism (the disturbance of our time; setting the stage for narcissistic disorders), then abusive styles of parenting (the inadequate parent; the devouring parent; the tyrannical parent), repeating the family curse from generation to generation (money matters; sexuality and the incestuous ,"style of parenting; abandonment; illness and death; discipline), and breaking the chain (motivation and expectation; methods of transformation; looking to the future).

The Jungian Experience: Analysis and Individuation, by James A. Hall. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1986p* (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 26) (171, incl. 6-p. index, 4- p. bibl., 7-p. ref. notes, 2-p. gloss., 10 illus.).

Aiming to guide the person seeking Jungian analysis as well as to help rapists of other backgrounds to understand the clinical application of the classical Jungian approach, Hall illustrates theoretical points with clinical examples, weaving together theory and practice to avoid the pitfall of ',excessive symbolism. He demonstrates how to translate concepts into practice ,'by means of a topical sequence, starting with "the troubled person" and moving to the topics of the mind and the body; diagnosis; the structure of analysis; process of analysis; dreams and techniques of enactment; variations of analysis; the individuating ego; and "beyond analysis," concluding with and religious implications of Jungian theory. Appended is a description of the structural elements of the personality, along with a guide of how and where to find Jungian analysts.

~'The Psychobiology of Mind-Body Healing: New Concepts of Therapeutic Hypnosis, by Ernest Lawrence Rossi. New York: W. W. Norton, 1986*; 1988p* (Professional Books) (231 + xv, incl. 11-p. index, 16-p. bibl., 7 illus., foreword by Norman Cousins).

This book is a result of the author's quest for personal health and desire to understand new texts about mind-body relationships, stress, psychoneurology, immunology, neuroendocrinology, molecular genetics, and neurobiology of memory and learning. Rossi offers a broad frame of reference and a language for understanding the natural processes of heating, using his experience as a Jungian analyst and his training in hypnosis under Milton Erickson. He discusses at length the psychology of mind-body communication, including the topics of placebo response (a rejected cornerstone of mind-body healing); mind-body healing and hypnosis; stress and psychosomatic phenomena; and the new language of mind-body communication. The second part deals with the psychobiology of mind-body healing, including an overview of mindbody communication and healing, and a discussion of mind modulation of the automatic nervous system and of the neuropeptide system.

The Scapegoat Complex: Toward a Mythology of Shadow and Guilt, by Sylvia Perera. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1986p* (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 23) (126, incl. 5-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 2-p. gloss. of Jungian terms).

Drawing on her own experience and on material shared by friends and by analysands in her clinical practice, Perera examines the widespread scapegoat complex. In this, someone is found who can be identified with wrong-doing or evil, blamed for it, and cast out of the community so that the remaining members may be left with a feeling of guiltlessness. She examines the phenomenology of such scapegoat-identified individuals from the complex down to the original archetypal image and discusses how to heal those who are caught in the scapegoat complex. Her topics include the riddance of evil and guilt; the structure of the scapegoat complex; exile in the wilderness; scapegoating within the family; the scapegoat complex and ego structure (including distortions of perception, enduring painful experience, and problems of self-assertion); the scapegoat-messiah image; the feminine element; healing the scapegoat complex; and the meaning of the scapegoat archetype.

Withymead: A Jungian Community for the Healing Arts, by Anthony Stevens. London: Coventure, 1986p* (254 + vi, incl. 7-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 4 illus.).

A pioneer residential community composed of staff as well as patients using art therapy and Jungian analysis in a family setting in Devon, Withymead is presented by Stevens as a unique sanctuary of healing for people in mental distress. Established by Irene and Gilbert Champernowne during the Second World War, it functioned until overtaken by hard times and inner dissensions in the 1960s. Stevens, who trained with Jungian analyst Irene Champernowne and subsequently became a colleague, describes and inter rets the historical and social context of Withymead and discusses the topics the human factor, the therapeutic community, creativity, therapy through arts, family matters, and finally "a house divided."

Archetypal Processes in Psychotherapy, edited by Nathan Schwartz-Salant and Murray Stein. Wilmette, Ill.: Chiron Publications, 1987p* (The Chiron Clinical Series) (228 + iv, incl. end-chapter bibl. notes, 8 illus.).

Containing nine essays on archetypal processes in psychotherapy, this first issue of The Chiron Clinical Series (entitled Chiron: A Review of Jungian Analysis until 1986) consists of contributions "On the Theory of complexes" (Hans Dieckmann); "Archetypes on the Couch" (Rosemary Gordon); "Emerging Concepts of the Self: Clinical Considerations" (Charles Klaif); "An Extended Model of the Infant Self" (Joel Ryce-Menuhin); "Look Backward: Archetypes in Reconstruction" (Murray Stein); "Affect and Archetype in Analysis" (Louis Stewart); "The Archetypal Foundation of the therapeutic Process" (Barbara Sullivan); "Chiron's Wound: Some Reflections on the Wounded Healer" (Michael Whan); and "Archetypal and Personal Interaction in the Clinical Process" (Whitmont).

Relationships: Dreambody, Anthropos, and Hologram Aspects of Couples, Families, and Groups, by Arnold Mindell. London and New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1987p*; New York: Penguin, 1988p* (146 + x, incl. 9-p. index, 2-p. bibl.).

Convinced of the applicability of his earlier studies in physics to family therapy in the sense that groups behave in some respects like single systems, Mindell builds on his earlier experience in dream and body work as an aid understanding group dream patterns (1982) and on the challenge to find ut more about the relationship of the individual to the collective (1985). He begins with a discussion of dreambody language, followed by perspectives n family studies and analyses and the topics of working with local information processes, communication structures, channels and signals, working with couples, typical relationship processes, the universal dreambody, ,'and the therapist's attitude. He concludes with the subject of planetary psychology.

The Dreambody Toolkit: A Practical Introduction to the Philosophical Goals and Practice of Process-Oriented Psychology, by Joseph H. Goodbread. New York and London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1987p*; New York: Penguin, 1988p* (240 + viii, incl. 5-p. index, 2-p. bibl., 2-p. ref. notes).

Growing out of a course taught at the Research Society for Process Oriented Psychology in Zurich, this work by Goodbread provides a "basic set of tools" to enable one to build one's own version of process-oriented psychology, a technique developed by Arnold Mindell. He presents first the philosophical basis and goals of process-oriented psychotherapy and then devotes most of the book to practical process work, in which he analyzes the discovery of process structures and the relationships of process structures to language, to paralinguistic signals, and to non-verbal signals. He then moves from signals to structures (identification and personification) and dynamics, concluding with process dynamics and the large patterns.

Female Authority: Empowering Women Through Psychotherapy, by Polly Young- Eisendrath and Florence L. Wiedemann. New York and London: Guilford Press, 1987p* (242 + xiv, incl. 5-p. index, 5-p. bibl.).

Basing their work on Jung's psychology and Jane Loevinger's concepts of ego development and the stages of animus development, Young-Eisendrath and Wiedemann propose a model of female development that articulates basic conflicts in female identity between consciously claimed gender (as female) and unconsciously excluded animus (as the authority of the mate "other"). They define female authority as the ability of a woman to validate her own convictions of truth, beauty, and goodness in regard to her Selfconcept and self-interest, which involves body image, self- confidence, social functioning, occupational functioning, sexual pleasure, and subjective Self- assessment. They discuss the topics of conflict as identity, competence, feminism and Jung, a model for psychotherapy for women, the animus as an alien outsider, the animus as father, God, or king, romancing the hero, restoration of female authority, and identity relationship in adulthood.

Practical Jung: Nuts and Bolts of Jungian Psychotherapy, by Harry A. Wilmer. Wilmette, Ill.: Chiron Publications, 1987* +p* (279 + xiii, incl. 4-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 46 illus., nearly 100 drawings by author, 1-p. foreword by Joseph L. Henderson).

Drawing on forty years of experience in psychiatry and medicine (early Freudian training and later, extensive, Jungian training), Wilmer presents a how-to book of thoughtful and intuitive ways to integrate and implement his own psychology and that of Jung. He describes interactions between therapists and their patients as well as the subtle, dynamic, illogical, non-, Mechanical, and irrational psyche with all of its power for healing as well as destruction. His humorous nuts-and-bolts approach deals with transference and countertransference, archetypes, outer manifestation of things, psychotherapy, the meaning and function of dreams, and symbolism and creativity.