Cross Currents: Chapter 9

This chapter deals with Jung’s later works, often called his most important and provocative, which deal with the “psychological aspects of the religious problems of a Christian.”  Though Jung claimed Christianity, he tangles with religion from a psychological perspective in these texts.


Cross-Currents of Jungian Psychology

9  Religion and Jung's Psychology

One of the most provocative aspects of Jung's psychology is its relationship to the religious dimension of life. Many of his most important works, particularly the last ones, deal with psychological aspects of the religious problems of a Christian. While declaring his allegiance to Christianity, he differs in many respects from traditional, instititutional Christianity. From the standpoint of psychology, he is aware that the psyche spontaneously produces images that have a religious content; and he sets a boundary between his empirical understanding and Christian demands for metaphysical faith. He speaks of God and of his personal experiences of the numinous.

More than one hundred forty books comprise this subject category, including more than twenty cross-referenced from other subject. Recent expansion of interest is indicated by the fact that half of the works have been published since 1980.

Jung: Aion [p. 199]
_____: Answer to Job [p. 199]
_____: Psychology and Religion [p. 198]
_____: Psychology and Religion: West and East [p. 200]
_____: Psychology and the East [p. 201]
_____: Psychology and Western Religion [p. 201]
Arraj, J.: St. John of the Cross and Dr. C. G. Jung [p. 23
Avens: Imaginal Body [p. 227]
_____: Imagination Is Reality [p. 222]
Aziz: C. G. Jung's Psychology of Religion [p. 248]
Babcock: Jung, Hesse, Harold [p. 231]
Begg: The Cult of the Black Virgin (See chapter 8, "Femimnt Masculine Psychology")  [p. 181]
_____: Myth and Today's Consciousness (See chapter 6, "Human
Development and Individuation")  [p. 108]
Bianchi: Aging as a Spiritual Journey (See chapter 6, "Human Development and Individuation")  [p. 103]
Brennan & Brewi: Mid-Life Directions [p. 235]
Brewi & Brennan: Celebrate Mid-life [p. 242]
_____: Mid-life [p. 228]
Brown: Jung's Hermeneutic of Doctrine [p. 224]
Bryant: Depth Psychology and Religious Belief [p. 215]
_____: Jung and the Christian Way [p. 230]
_____: The River Within (See chapter 6, "Human Development and
Individuation") [p. 97]
Campbell: Myths to Live By [p. 216]
Caprio: The Woman Sealed in the Tower (See chapter 8, "Feminine and Masculine Psychology")  [p. 176]
Carroll & Dyckman: Chaos or Creation [p. 236]
Chapman: Jung's Three Theories of Religious Experience [p. 244]
Clift, W.: Jung and Christianity [p. 227]
Cohen: The Mind of the Bible-Believer [p. 237]
Coward: Jung and Eastern Thought [p. 234]
Cox: Jung and St. Paul [p. 209]
Curatorium of the C. G. Jung Institute, Zurich: Conscience [p. 208]
_____: Evil [p. 211]
Daking: Jungian Psychology and Modern Spiritual Thought [p. 202]
Doran: Subject and Psyche [p. 219]
Dourley: The Goddess Mother of the Trinity [p. 248]
_____: The Illness That We Are [p. 233]
_____: The Psyche as Sacrament: C. G. Jung and Paul Tillich [p. 223]
_____: Love, Celibacy, and the Inner Marriage [p. 240]
Dunne: Behold Woman [p. 245]
Edinger: The Bible and the Psyche (See chapter 6, "Human Development and Individuation")  [p. Ill]
_____: The Christian Archetype (See chapter 6, "Human Development
and Individuation") [p. 112]
_____Ego and Archetype (See chapter 6, "Human Development and
Individuation") [p. 92]
Engelsman: The Feminine Dimension of the Divine [p. 222]
Evans-Wentz: The Tibetan Book of the Dead [p. 201]
_____: The Tibetan Book of Great Liberation [p. 207]
Garrison: The Darkness of God [p. 225]
Goldenberg: The Changing of the Gods [p. 221]
_____:The End of God [p. 226]
Griffin (ed.): Archetypal Process: Self and Divine [p. 247]
Haddon: Body Metaphors: Releasing God-Feminine in Us All [p. 241]
Hanna: The Face of the Deep [p. 213]
Heisig: Imago Dei: A Study of C. G. Jung's Psychology of Religion [220]
Hillman: A Blue Fire [p. 245]
_____: Insearch: Psychology and Religion [p. 213]
Hillman (ed.): Facing the Gods [p. 223]
Hoeller: The Gnostic Jung [p. 226]
_____Jung and the Lost Gospels [p. 247]
Hostie: Religion and the Psychology of Jung [p. 207]
Howell: The Dove in the Stone [p. 243]
Howes: Intersection and Beyond [p. 212]
_____: Jesus' Answer to God (See chapter 6, "Human Devel
and Individuation")  [p. 108]
Jaffe, L.: Liberating the Heart [p. 248]
Johnson, B.: Lady of the Beasts [p. 244]
Kelsey: Christianity as Psychology [p. 236]
_____: Christo-Psychology [p. 225]
_____: God, Dreams, and Revelation (See chapter 7)  [p. 140]
_____: The Other Side of Silence [p. 219]
_____: Prophetic Ministry [p. 229]
Kerenyi: Asklepios [p. 205]
_____: Athene: Virgin and Mother [p. 203]
_____: Dionysos [p. 218]
_____: Eleusis [p. 210]
_____: Hermes, Guide of Souls [p. 203]
_____: Prometheus [p. 204]
_____: Zeus and Hera [p. 216]
Kluger: Psyche and the Bible [p. 217]
_____: Satan in the Old Testament [p. 205]
Kunkel: Creation Continues (See chapter 6, "Human Development and Individuation")  [p. 83]
LaDage: Occult Psychology [p. 220]
Luke: The Voice Within [p. 233]
Martin & Goss (eds.): Essays on Jung and the Study of Religion [p. 234]
Meier: Jung's Analytical Psychology and Religion [p. 209]
Michael & Norrissey: Prayer and Temperament [p. 233]
Miller, D.: Christs [p. 224]
_____: Hells and Holy Ghosts [p. 246]
_____: The New Polytheism [p. 217]
_____: Three Faces of God [p. 239]
Moacanin: Jung's Psychology and Tibetan Buddhism [p. 236]
Mogenson: God Is a Trauma [p. 246]
Moon: A Magic Dwells [p. 215]
Moore (ed.): Carl Jung and Christian Spirituality [p. 241]
Moore & Meckel (eds.): Jung and Christianity in Dialogue [p. 248]
Moorish: The Dark Twin: A Study of Evil—and Good [p. 223]
Moreno: Jung, Gods, and Modern Man [p. 214]
Paris: Pagan Meditations (See chapter 8, "Feminine and Masculine Psychology") [p. 184]
Parker: Return: Beyond the Self (See chapter 6, "Human Development and Individuation") [p. 98]
Phillips et al. (eds.): The Choice Is Always Ours (See chapter 6, "Human Development and Individuation")  [p. 83]
Philp: Jung and the Problem of Evil [p. 209]
Raine: The Human Face of God [p. 227]
Reid: The Return to Faith [p. 218]
Rollins: Jung and the Bible [p. 230]
Rudin: Psychotherapy and Religion [p. 210]
Sandner: Navaho Symbols of Healing (See chapter 11, "Jungian Analy-sis") [p. 318]
Sanford: Evil: The Shadow Side of Reality [p. 224]
_____: Fritz Kunkel: Selected Writings [p. 232]
_____: The Kingdom Within [p. 214]
_____: The Strange Trial of Mr. Hyde [p. 240]
Santa Maria: Growth Through Meditation and Journal Writing [p. 230]
Savary, Berne & Kaplan-Williams: Dreams and Spiritual Growth [p. 232]
Schaer: Religion and the Cure of Souls in Jung's Psychology [p. 204]
Singer: Seeing Through the Visible World [p. 249]
_____: The Unholy Bible (See chapter 10, "Creativity and Jung's Psychology") [p. 260]
Slusser: From Jung to Jesus (See chapter 6, "Human Development and Individuation") [p. 111]
Smith: Jung's Quest for Wholeness [p. 248]
Spiegelman (ed.): Catholicism and Jungian Psychology [p. 242]
Spiegelman & Khan: Sufism and Jungian Psychology [p. 249]
Spiegelman & Miyuki: Buddhism and Jungian Psychology [p. 231]
Spiegelman & Vasavada: Hinduism and Jungian Psychology [p. 239]
Stein, M.: Jung's Treatment of Christianity [p. 235]
Stein & Moore: Jung's Challenge to Contemporary Religion [p. 239]
Suzuki: Introduction to Zen Buddhism [p. 202]
Thompson: Journey Toward Wholeness (See chapter 6, "Human Development and Individuation")  [p. 104]
Thornton: The Diary of a Mystic [p. 213]
Ulanov, A.: The Feminine in Jungian Psychology and Christian Theology (See chapter 8, "Feminine and Masculine Psychology")  [p. 166]
_____: Picturing God [p. 238]
_____: The Wisdom of the Psyche [p. 245]
Ulanov & Ulanov: Primary Speech [p. 228]
_____: Religion and the Unconscious [p. 218]
von der Heydt: Prospects for the Soul [p. 219]
von Franz: Passion of Perpetua [p. 206]
_____: Shadow and Evil in Fairy Tales (See chapter 10, "Creativity
and Jung's Psychology") [p. 262]
Wallis: Jung and the Quaker Way [p. 243]
Weber: WomanChrist [p. 241]
Welch: Spiritual Pilgrims: Jung and Teresa of Avila [p. 229]
Werblowsky: Lucifer and Prometheus (See chapter 10, "Creativity and Jung's Psychology") [p. 254]
Westman: The Springs of Creativity [p. 212]
_____: The Structure of Biblical Myths [p. 231]
White: God and the Unconscious [p. 206]
_____: Soul and Psyche [p. 211]
Witcutt: Catholic Thought and Modern Psychology [p. 203]
Wolff-Salin: No Other Light [p. 237]
Yungblut: Discovering God Within [p. 221]
_____: The Gentle Art of Spiritual Guidance [p. 243]
Zaehner: Mysticism [p. 208]

Psychology and Religion, by C. G. Jung. New Haven: Yale U. Press and London: Oxford U. Press, 1938*; Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1938; New Haven: Yale Paperbound, 1960p* (131, incl. 15-p. ref. notes).

Written in English and delivered at Yale University as the fifteenth series of Terry Lectures on Religion in the Light of Science and Philosophy (1937), these three lectures Jung gave come "from a purely empirical point of view" that deals with the autonomy of the unconscious mind, dogma, and natural symbols, and with the history and psychology of a natural symbol. In the first lecture he gives a few glimpses of the way practical psychology relates to religion, using illustrations from his medical practice, including interpretation of dreams from the unconscious. In the second lecture he is concerned with facts that demonstrate an authentic religious function in the unconscious, in which dogma and symbols are involved, such as the central Christian symbol of a Trinity as contrasted with the formula of a quaternity as presented by the unconscious. The third lecture deals with religious symbolism of the unconscious processes, particularly the mandala symbol of wholeness which is experienced in dreams.
(Bk.revs.: AmJPsychi '38/95:504--6; AmSocR '38/3:907; BkRDig '38:513; Bklist '38/ 34:297; Bks 90c'38:16; BrJPsy '38/29:200; ChurchQR '38/nl126:332--6; Chman '38/ 152:172; JBibRel '38/6:162; JRel '38/18:458; Nation '38/146:510--11; NewStates '387 15:660 + ; NYTimesBkR 20Mr'38:14; RofRel '38/3:224--6; SatR 26Mr'38/17:18; Sci-BkClubR Mr'38/9:3; Tabl '38/171:406; TimesLitSup '38:323; AmJSoc '39/44:612--13; Person '39/20:206--7; Philos '39/14:248-9; PsyanQ '39/8:392--3; PsyBul '39/36:131--2; Thought '39/14:335--6; PsyanR '40/27:114--15; JNervMent '43/97:615--17; PastorPsy Jn'57/8:63--4)

Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self, by C. G. Jung. (Ger: Aion: Untersuchungen zur Symbolgeschichte. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1951, with a contribution by Marie-Louise von Franz.) New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Foundation), 1959; Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1959; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1959*; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/ Bollingen, ed.2 1968; 1979p* (CW 9, pt.2) (333 + xi, inch 31-p. index, 28-p. bibl., 16 illus.).

With the help of Christian, Gnostic, and alchemical symbols of the self, Jung interprets the changes of the psychical situation within the "Christian aeon" (in Greek, aion) in terms of the archetypal image of wholeness, which has its forerunners in history (for instance, in the Christ figure) and appears frequently as a product of the unconscious in the form of dream images. He starts with a summary of the key concepts of his system of psychology (ego, shadow, anima and animus, the self) and then discusses the topics of Christ as a symbol of the self; the sign of the fishes; the prophecies of Nostradamus; the historical significance of the fish; the ambivalence of the fish symbol; and alchemical interpretation of the fish. This leads to his interpretation of the psychology of Christian alchemical symbolism as well as the Gnostic symbols of the self, ending with an overall picture of the structure and dynamics of the self.
(Bk.revs.: BulAnPsyNY My'52/14:sup6; TimesLitSup '58:744; BrJMedPsy '59/32:302; Lib] '59/84:2194; PsychiQ '59/33:395-6; CathEdR '60/58:421-3; JAnPsy '60/5:159-66; JNervMent '60/130:178-81; Person '60/41:266-7; PsysomMed '60/22:243-4; Spring '60:150; TimesLitSup '60:57)

Answer to Job, by C. G. Jung. (Ger.: Antwort auf Hiob. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1952.) London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1954; 1979p; Great Neck, N.Y.: Pastoral Psychology Book Club, 1956; Cleveland: Meridian Books/World Pub. Co., 1960p; London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1965p; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1973p*; London: Ark Paperbacks, 1984p* (121 + xv, incl. 11-p. index, 1-p. bibl.).

Having been occupied for years with the central problem of Job, who expected help from God against God, Jung approaches this major religious problem through its historical evolution from the time of Job to the most recent symbolic phenomena, such as the Assumption of Mary. His thesis is that if Christianity claims to be a monotheism, it becomes unavoidable to assume that opposites are contained in God. By using Jungian theory, mythology, and alchemical theory, he analyzes the narrative of Job within the framework of an evolutionary view of consciousness, with Yahweh at that time being relatively unconscious in comparison with human consciousness. Jung asserts the awesome power of the opposites in Yahweh, interpreting the treatment of Job as the projection of Yahweh's uncertainty about his own goodness and justice, concluding with a view of Yahweh's need for incarnation to gain consciousness.
(Bk.revs.: BrJPsy '55/46:242; DublR '55/229:337; Encoun(L) Ap'55/4:85--7; JRelThought '55/12:127--8; Tabl '55/205:135; TimesLitSup '55:693; AmJPsychi '56/112:952; JPastorCare '56/10:188; PastorPsy Ja'5 6/6:82--3; Philos '56/31:259--60; DrewGate'60/ 31:53--4; ScotJTheol '67/20:120--1; PsyMed '85/15:443; TeachColRec '86/88:300)

Psychology and Religion: West and East, by C. G. Jung. New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Foundation), 1958; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1958; ed.2 1970*; Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1958; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, ed.2 1969* (CW 11) (690 + xii, incl. 48-p. index, 30-p. bibl., 5 illus.).

Although not a complete collection of Jung's writings on psychology and religion, since such books as Aion and Psychology and Alchemy also deal with "religion," this volume of the Collected Works consists of sixteen studies grouped under the headings of Western and Eastern religions. The longest are his 1952 book, Answer to Job (114 pp.), and his 1937 lectures, Psychology and Religion (101 pp.), followed by 1940 and 1941 Eranos Conference lectures (later expanded) on a psychological approach to the dogma of the Trinity (92 pp.) and transformation symbolism in the mass (94 pp.). Also on Western religion are a 1928 article on psychoanalysis and the cure of souls, a 1933 review of a book on Brother Klaus (patron saint of Switzerland), and forewords to Werblowsky's Lucifer and Prometheus and to White's God and the Unconscious. Articles on Eastern religion include psychological commentaries on The Tibetan Book of the Dead and The Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation, a lecture on the psychology of Eastern meditation, essays on yoga and the West and on holy men of India, and forewords to Suzuki's Introduction to Zen Buddhism and to Wilhelm's translation of The I Ching, or Book of Changes.
(Bk.revs.: AmSocR '58/23:741; CathEdR '58/56:499--502; BulMennClin '58/22:237; Domin '58/43:333--6; LibJ '58/283:1926; Month '58/20:219--24; NYTimesBkR 20Ap'58:1 + ; RMeta '58/12:146; JAnPsy '59/4:68-83; Person '59/40:309--10; QueensQ '59/66:334-6; AmJPsychi '60/117:92; ConcordiaTh '60/31:461)

Psychology and the East, by C. G. Jung. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/ Bollingen, 1978p*; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982p; London: Ark Paperbacks, 1986p* (211 + vi).

In addition to Jung's writings on Eastern religion in Psychology and Religion: West and East, excerpts on the philosophy and culture of the East from other volumes of the Collected Works also are collected in this paperback edition, all of which are arranged chronologically (1929-1956). The longest is his psychological commentary on the Taoist text The Secret of the Golden Flower, an alchemical treatise also concerned with Chinese yoga. The other writings on Eastern subjects from other sources of Jung's work are the very brief articles on the dream-like world of India (1939), what India can teach us (1939), and the discourses of Buddha (1956), which come from observations made during his trip to India in 1937—38, and his 1949 foreword to Lily Abegg's Ostasien denkt anders (East Asia thinks otherwise).

Psychology and Western Religion, by C. G. Jung. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press/Bollingen, 1984p*; London: Ark Paperbacks/Routledge & Kegan Paul,
1988p* (307 + vii).

Most of this paperback edition consists of excerpts from volume 11 of the Collected Works (Psychology and Religion: West and East), omitting the books Answer to Job and the Terry Lectures (Psychology and Religion), which have been published separately. Included are Jung's writings on the Trinity, symbolism in the mass, the clergy, the cure of souls, and Brother Klaus. The remaining quarter contains excerpts from volume 18 (The Symbolic Life), the longest being extensive abstracts (entitled "Jung and Religious Belief") from H. L. Philp's book, Jung and the Problem of Evil, which contains Jung's answers to questions from Philp and David Cox. Also included are a 1954 letter to Pere Lachat on the Holy Spirit and a 1954 letter to the Los Angeles Jung Institute seminar members in answer to questions on resurrection.
(Bk.revs.: RelStudR '85/11:171; TimesLitSup '89:203)

The Tibetan Book of the Dead; Or, The After-Death Experiences on the Bardo Plane, according to Lama Kazi Dawa-Samdup's English Reading, compiled and edited by W. Y. Evans-Wentz. (Ger.: Das tibetanische Totenbuch. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1935.) London: Oxford U. Press, 1927; ed.l 1949; ed.3 1957; New York: Galaxy Book/Oxford U. Press, ed.3 1960p; 1980p*; New York: Causeway, 1973 (249 + Ixxxiv, incl. 7-p. index, 9 illus., 20-p. foreword by Sir John Woodroffe; ed.3 contains 18-p. psychol. comm. by Jung based on Ger. edn.).

Jung's analysis of the Tibetan treatise on the after-death experiences of everyman provides a psychological interpretation of the set of instructions for the dead, a guide through the Bardo realm of existence for forty-nine days between death and rebirth (reincarnation). He discusses the process of the psychic happenings at the moment of death (all consciousness surrendered at that spiritual climax), followed by the terrifying dream-state immediately after death ("karmic illusions" resulting from psychic residue of previous existences) and the descent which eventually ends in a womb, after which the person is born into the earthly world again with its accompanying "birth trauma." Jung suggests that the Western mind should read this Bardo process backwards.
(Bk.revs.: TimesLitSup '27:770; LondMerc '28/17:493; Person '51/32:209; FarEQ '53/ 12:452-4; JAmOrSoc '57/77:237-8; Person '58/39:409-10; AmJPsy '59/72:323-4)

Jungian Psychology and Modern Spiritual Thought, by D. C. Baking. London and Oxford: Anglo-Eastern Publishing Co., 1933 (133, incl. 1-p. bibl., 4 illus.).

Concerned with relating "psychology" and "religion" for the people who do go to church as well as those who don't, Baking brings Jung to the attention of spiritually minded people and explains to his psychological friends an article written by the English Benedictine Abbot of Pershore. His intention is to catch a glimpse of God and to understand a bit about human nature. His topics include prayer; "the necessary instincts"; our depths and our consciousness; earth and the spirit; men and women; sin and the law; and understanding of human nature.
(Bk.rev.: TimesLitSup '34:515)

An Introduction to Zen Buddhism, by Baisetz Suzuki. Kyoto: Eastern Buddhist Society, 1934; New York: Philosophical Library, 1949; London: Rider, 1949; rev. 1969p; ed.3 1983p*; 1986p*; Toronto: George J. McLeod, 1949; London: Arrow Books, 1959p; New York: Evergreen Black Cat Book/ Grove Press, 1964p; 1987p*; Causeway Books, 1974 (136, incl. 4-p. index, 21-p. foreword by Jung).

Drawing on both Oriental and Western knowledge and emphasizing that Zen Buddhism is "primarily and ultimately a discipline" aimed at self-understanding, Suzuki presents the practical aspects of the discipline with illustrations of each aspect. Jung's long foreword emphasizes how very different Oriental religious conceptions usually are from Western ones, especially the transformation process of satori (enlightenment); and he views a direct transplantation of Zen to Western conditions as neither commendable nor even possible. As a psychotherapist he is moved when he sees the end ("making whole") toward which the Eastern method of psychic "healing" is striving, a process that requires intelligence and will power.
(Bk.revs.: BkRDig '49:895; ChrCen '49/66:1543; CrozerQ '49/26:366--8; EastWorld D'49/3:22--3; IntAff '49/55:548; ReligEd '49/44:373; AmJPsy '50/63:464--7; Ethics '50/ 60:151; JBibRel '50/18:80--1; JPhilos '50/47:477--8; Person '50/31:412; PhilosPhen '507 11:279-80; JAsianStud '65/24:516-17)

Catholic Thought and Modern Psychology, by William P. Witcutt. London: Burnes, Gates & Washbourne, 1943 (57 pp.).

Given his point of view that the theories of Freud and Adler were incompatible with Catholic teaching, while those of Jung may be studied and "in part" absorbed by Catholic philosophy, Witcutt aims to discern how much of Jung may be accepted. He deems Jungian psychology to be a potent instrument for good, considering Jung's research into the "most hidden parts of the hidden mechanism" as a practical as well as theoretical science; but it must be evaluated in the hand of "someone who knows what he is about" (a Catholic philosopher or theologian), with "due respect to Jung." He discusses Freud, Adler, libido, the unconscious, the types, the purpose of life, dream and myth, and the archetypes.
(Bk.rev.:IrEcdRec '44/64:70 + )

Hermes, Guide of Souls: The Mythologem of the Masculine Source of Life, by Karl Kerenyi. (Ger.: Hermes der Seelenfiihrer. Zurich: Rhein Verlag, 1944.) Zurich: Spring Publications for the Analytical Psychology Club of New York, 1976p; Dallas: Spring Publications, reissue 1986p* (Dunquin Series, 7) (104 + vi, incl. 13-p. ref. notes, 2-p. prefatory note by Magda Kerenyi).

Kerenyi's favorite Greek god, Hermes, is characterized as the archetypal figure of the "speech-gifted mediator and psychogogue" (literally, life-soul , the common guide for those to whom life is an adventure of love or spirit. He examines the complex role of Hermes in classical tradition (the "Hermes idea"; Hermes of the Iliad and the Odyssey; Hermes of the hymn; Hermes and the night) and then discusses the Hermes of life and death Hermes and Eros; Hermes as the companion of goddesses; the mystery of the Herm, the ithyphallic symbol of masculine life-source; Hermes and the ram; and Silenos, "teacher of Dionysos and Hermes").

Athene, Virgin and Mother: A Study of Pallas Athene, by Karl Kerenyi. (Ger.: Die Jungfrau und Mutter der griechischen Religion: Eine Studie tiber Pallas Athene. Zurich: Rhein Verlag, 1946.) Zurich: Spring Publications, 1978p; Dallas: Spring Publications, 1988p* (Dunquin Series, 9) (106, incl. 6-p. index, 20-p. notes, 9-p. comments by Murray Stein).

Describing his research method as fundamentally psychological, Kerenyi characterizes the archetypal image of Athene as polarized, containing an inner tension between wounder and healer, the "mighty, high-minded, gracious daughter of the Lord of Heaven," whose bondedness to the Father defends his interests and spirit in achievement. His is a study in the history of the Greek religion and is also an interpretive analysis of an archetypal image. Stein's "afterthoughts" contribute an archetypal view of Athene as a power in the life of the psyche that motivates fantasy, feelings, and behavior that keep one grounded in "real projects" and works to convert analysis into therapeutic improvement. The image of Athene, which also protects against the dark aggressiveness of the Father, provides insight into the complexities of defense by strategic reflection.
(Bk.revs.: RofRel '53/18:117; BksAbroad '54/28:333)

Prometheus: Archetypal Image of Human Existence, by C. Kerenyi. (Ger.: Prometheus: Das griechische Mythologem von der Menschlichen Existenz. Zurich: Rhein Verlag, 1946.) London: Thames & Hudson, 1963; Philadelphia: R. West, 1963; New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Series LXV:1), 1963* (Archetypal Images in Greek Religion, vol. 1) (152 + xxvi, incl. 6-p. I index, 10-p. bibl., 18 illus.).

Emphasizing the mythological aspect of Greek religion and defining "archetypal images" not on the basis of any explanatory theory (though recognizing Jung's psychological explanation of the phenomenon as a factor) but "phenomenologically, describing mythology and tracing it back to its foundation in Greek existence," Kerenyi deals with Prometheus as archetypal image of human existence. He approaches the mythologem (writing preserving a myth) through the work of Goethe, with some discussion of archaic Prometheus mythology, stating that Prometheus stands in the most remarkable relation to humankind, presenting a striking resemblance and a striking contrast to the Christian savior. Kerenyi interprets Prometheus as interceding for humanity by suffering the "hallmarks of human existence," wounded by injustice, torment, and humiliation for stealing the fire that is denied the I animals, the possession of which made human existence human.
(Bk.revs.: RofRel '47/11:159--64; LibJ '63/88:2015; VaQR '63/39:clv; BkRDig '64:654; Criticism '64/6:89--92; TiraesLitSup '64:57; ClassBul '65/41:47--8; ClassR '66/nsl6:122-3; CompLit '69/21:76-80)

Religion and the Cure of Souls in Jung's Psychology, by Hans Schaer. (Ger.: S Religion und Seele in der Psychologic C. G. Jungs. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1946.) New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Series XXI), 1950; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951; New York: Schocken Books, 1966 (266, incl. 4-p. index).

Asserting that everything Jung has published has to do with religion to a greater or lesser degree and is not confined to Christianity, Schaer states that one must first come to terms with Jung's whole structure of psychic reality in order to gain understanding of religion in Jung's psychology. He first discusses the elements in Jungian psychology (especially the unconscious, but also shadow, persona, anima/animus, psychological attitudes and types), then the psychic bases of religion and religion as a psychic function, particularly in the process of individuation through increasing consciousness. The long chapter on "man and religion" deals with examination of Jung's ideas on the God-image (with special attention to Meister Eckhart's concepts) and his distinction between Church and religion. He concludes with an evaluation of Jung's significance in the religious situation of today, particularly from the Protestant standpoint. It may be noted that this was written before Jung's Aion and Answer to Job.
(Bk.revs.: BkRDig '50:796; BulAnPsyNY D'50/12:4-8; ChrCen '50/67:923-4; JPastor-Care FalP50/4:54-5; PastorPsy S'50/l:60-l; PhilosQ '50/1:185-6; Poetry '50/77:168-73; SchSoc '50/71:302; BrJPsy '51/42:381-2; RelThought '51/8:80-1; PsychiQ '51/ 25:174; InwLight '52/n41:132-4; TimesLitSup 23My'58:xii)

Asklepios: Archetypal Image of the Physician's Existence, by C. Kerenyi. (Ger.: Der gottliche Arzt: Studien iiber Asklepios und seine Kultstatten. Basel: Ciba, 1947.) New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Series LXV:3), 1959* (Archetypal Images in Greek Religion, vol. 3); Aldershot: Thames & Hudson, 1960; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1967 (151 + xxvii, incl. 9-p. index, 13-p. bibl., 58 illus.).

Kerenyi presents the Greek god Asklepios as the prototype of the healer, the wounded healer as primordial physician. He studies the origins in Greek medicine in Epidauros with its temple and sanctuary, as well as the topics of Asklepios in Rome; the sons of Asklepios on the island of Kos as ancient center of medical science; and the physician of the gods in Homer.
(Bk.revs.: BkRDig '60:736; GuardW 24Jn'60:6; LibJ '60/85:296; Person '60/41:563-4; Spec 1Jn '60:34; VaQR '60/36:xci; ClassR '61/75:175--6; TimesLitSup '61:27; ClassBul '63/39:44--5)

Satan in the Old Testament, by Rivkah Scha'rf Kluger. (Ger.: Die Gestalt des Satans im Alten Testament. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1948.) Evanston, 111.: Northwestern U. Press, 1967 (Studies in Jungian Thought) (173 + xvii, incl. 11-p. index, 3-p. foreword by James Hillman).

Eschewing metaphysical speculation about God and the devil, Kluger assembles statements concerning the mythological figure of Satan and examines the psychological content of which it is the symbolic expression. Based upon Jung's fundamental views concerning the problem of God and the devil as primal images and archetypes of the human psyche, she traces the concept of "Satan," both in the profane realm and in the metaphysical realm, looking at its development in the Old Testament, as in the story of Balaam and in the Book of Job, and discussing Babylonian traits in the image of Satan in Job, as well as Satan as an independent demon.
(Bk.revs.: LibJ '67/92:4506; LibJBkR '67:371; BkRDig '68:743; Choice '68/5:360; JAnPsy '68/13:173--4; Spring '68:138; JSciStudRel '69/8:169--72; Judaism '69/18:492-5)

The Passion of Perpetua, by Marie-Louise von Franz. (Orig. title: "The Passio Perpetuae" in Spring, 1949.) Dallas: Spring Publications, 1980p (Jungian Classics Series, 3) (81, incl. 6-p. ref. notes).

Impressed by the visions of St. Perpetua (martyred A.D. 203) and the fact that she had interpreted her own visions, von Franz provides a modern interpretation based on Jung's psychology, using more or less contemporary material to show how the same images appeared in the conscious minds of other people of the time and appeared even more often in spontaneous manifestations of the unconscious, regardless of the consciously held creed. In addition to presenting the life of St. Perpetua, the four visions, and interpretation of the visions, von Franz examines the problem of the orthodoxy of the martyrs, analyzing it from a psychological point of view.
(Bk.rev.: Quad '80/13n2:137)

God and the Unconscious, by Victor White. London: Harvill Press, 1952; Cleveland: World Publishing Co., 1952; Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1953; London: Fontana/Collins, 1960p; New York: Meridian Books/World Pub. Co., 1961p; London: Collins, 1967p; Dallas: Spring Publications, 1982p* (Jungian Classics Series, 4) (245 + xxxiii, incl. 3-p. index of authors quoted and other persons mentioned, 5-p. index of books and periodicals quoted from or referred to, 7-p. intro. by William Everson, 13-p. foreword by Jung).

Expressing indebtedness and gratitude to Jung's personal friendship and frank discussions, Dominican priest White presents disagreement or misgivings about some of Jung's views on the relationship of depth psychology and religion, chief of which is the dispute regarding the doctrine of privatio boni (evil as privation of good). Following two brief chapters that were to have been the introduction to an abandoned treatise, he offers ten essays and addresses from 1942 to 1952 that form a reasonably consecutive unity. These are the topics of the frontiers of theology and psychology; Freud, Jung, and God; the unconscious and God; Aristotle, Aquinas, and man; revelation and the unconscious; psychotherapy and ethics; the analyst and the confessor; devils and complexes; gnosis, Gnosticism, and faith; and the dying God.
(Bk.revs.: Amer '53/89:251; AmCathSoc '53/14:268--9; AmMerc S'53/77:138--9; BestSell 1Ag'53/13:89; Blackf '53/34:104--5; BkTrial '53/11:342; BrJMedPsy '53/26:319--22; CathWorker My'53/19:3 + ; CrossCurr '53/3:287; Domin '53/28:261-3; DownR '53/ 71:95-7; DublR '53/227:79-83; HibbJ '53/51:314 + ; Integ 4Jy'53/7:20-4; JTheolStud '53/ns4:158; LifeSpir '53/7:360; Month '53/9:186-8; QueensQ '53/60:142; Tabl '53/ 201:8-9; TheolStud '53/14:499-505; TimesLitSup '53:273; 20Cen '53/153:393-4; JPastorCare '54/8:101-3; NewScholas '54/28:240-3; Thought '54/29:126; JAmPsyan '58/ 6:548; JAnPsy '83/28:396-7)

Religion and the Psychology of Jung, by Raymond Hostie. (Dutch: Analytische Psychologic en Goddienst. Utrecht and Antwerp: Universitaires bibliotheek voor psychologic, 1954.) London and New York: Sheed & Ward, 1957 (249 + vi, incl. 5-p. index, 21-p. bibl.).

While valuing repeated personal contact with Jung and his close associates, Jesuit Hostie has based this critical study primarily on Jung's publications. In the first part he examines the empirical method in analytical psychology, fundamental views of analytical psychology (energetic conception of the libido; imago and symbol; archetypes; individuation), and synthesis or compromise by the complementarity of opposites. He then interprets Jung's view of the psychology of religion as being that the religious instinct is the "chief cornerstone" of the imposing psychic structure, after which he discusses the relationships between psychotherapy and spiritual direction and between psychology and dogma (the self as a mandala's center; the problem of evil; trinity and quaternity). His critique ends with an analysis of religion and analytical psychology, concluding that the religious function is rooted in the psyche, but revealed truths have their source in God, whose realities should not be confused.
(Bk.revs.: AmCathSoc '57/18:246-7; ClergyR '57/42:307; Domin '57/42:241-2; DownR '57/75:393-5; IrEcclRec '57/87:475-6; IrTheolQ '57/24:278; JTheolStud '57/ns8:380-l; LifeSpir S'57/12:141; Signs N'57/37:73; Thought '57/32:465-6; TimesLitSup '57:659; ConcordiaTh M'58/29:72; Interp '58/12:77-8; JAnPsy '58/3:59-71; JPastorCare '58/ 12:109-10; ModSchman '58/35:151-4; SocOrder F'58/8:86; ReligEd '59/54:72 + ; PastorPsy F'59/10:52-4)

The Tibetan Book of Great Liberation; Or, The Method of Realizing Nirvana Through Knowing the Mind, edited by W. Y. Evans-Wentz. London and New York: Oxford U. Press, 1954; London, New York, and Toronto: Galaxy Book/Oxford U. Press, 1968p; 1978p* (261 + Ixiv, incl. 7-p. index, 9 illus., 36-p. psychological commentary by Jung).

Jung's psychological commentary on The Tibetan Book of Great Liberation comes after the text that consists of the life and teachings of Tibet's great guru Padma Sambhava and the last testamentary teachings of guru Phadampa Sangay. Jung first discusses the difference between Eastern and Western thinking (including the self-liberating power of the introverted mind in contrast to the Western extraverted religious attitude) and then interprets the text, including commentary on the results of desires, the great self-liberation, the nature of mind, the names given to the mind, the timelessness of the mind, mind in its true state, the yoga of introspection, the dharma within, and the yoga of the nirvanic path.
(Bk-revs.: TimesLitSup '54:215; JAsianStud '55/14:429; RofRel '55/19:170-4; HeythJ '69/10:453)

Mysticism: Sacred and Profane, by Robert Charles Zaehner. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957*; New York: Galaxy Books/Oxford U. Press, 1961p; 1969p' (256 + xvi, incl. 22-p. index).

Profound disagreement with Aldous Huxley's conclusions in The Doors of Perception stimulated Zaehner to make this study of comparative mysticism in which he distinguishes between what seem to be radically different types of mystical experience and relates them to one another. He brings together a cross-section of mystical writing from European and Asiatic sources, including mystic experiences of Proust, Rimbaud, Baudelaire, Huxley, Richard Jefferies, and himself, drawing widely on Jung's ideas with regard to Oriental religion. His topics include mescaline, nature mystics, madness, integration and isolation, and monism versus theism and theism versus monism. In an appendix the author writes of his own experience with mescaline.
(Bk.revs.: Blackf '57/38:301-10; BkRDig '57:1023; ChurchQR '57/158:524-5; Month '57/18:274-81; SatR 10Ag'57/40:34-5; Tabl '57/210:390; TimesLitSup '57:368; BrJPsy '58/49:83)

Conscience, edited by the Curatorium of the C. G. Jung Institute, Zurich. (Ger.: Das Gewissen. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1958/Studien aus dem C. G.Jung-Institut, vol. VII.) Evanston, 111.: Northwestern U. Press, 1970* (Studies in Jungian Thought) (211 + xi, incl. 9-p. index, 4-p. preface by James Hillman).

Consisting of a series of seven lectures given at the Jung Institute in Zurich during 1957—58 on the subject of conscience, this book covers a significant range of perspectives starting with an essay on conscience in our time (Hans Zbinden) and followed by conscience in economic life (Eugen Bohler), the concept of conscience in Jewish perspective (R. J. Zwi Wer-blowsky), a Protestant view of conscience (Hans Schaer), a Catholic view of conscience (Josef Rudin), and Freud and conscience (Ernst Blum). The book concludes with a psychological view of conscience by Jung (reprinted in volume 10 of the Collected Works).
(Bk.rev.: JAnPsy '71/16:218-20)

Jung and the Problem of Evil, by Howard L. Philp. London: Rockliff, 1958; New York: Robert M. McBride, 1959 (271 + xiii, incl. 7-p. index, end-chapter ref. notes, 6-p. gloss.).
From a background of long and intense interest in Jung's work, including two long talks and an ongoing correspondence between Jung and the author concerning religion and psychology with particular attention to the significance of evil, Philp developed his own commentary as he became "increasingly critical of some of his [Jung's] writings on evil." He includes the texts of the first five and "final" fifteen questions and answers contained in their correspondence, along with somewhat lengthy answers by Jung to questions from David Cox. His own remarks are concerned with the topics of privatio boni (evil as privation of good) and a definition of evil; Satan; the quaternity; sin and the shadow; sin and the sinner; Jung's approach in Answer to Job and Philp's criticism; individuation; and "Christification of many." He concludes with admiration for Jung's "purely psychological contribution, but for writings on religion I personally find the theologians and many of the philosophers more objective and exact."
(Bk.revs.: AmJPsy '59/2:654-5; ChurchQR '59/160:401; Theol '59/62:163-5; JAnPsy '60/5:170-6)

Jung and St. Paul: A Study of the Doctrine of Justification by Faith and Its Relation to the Concept of Individuation, by David Cox. London and New York: Longmans Green, 1959; New York: Association Press, 1959 (358 + xiv, incl. 6-p. index, 2-p. bibl.).

Cox believes that psychotherapy and Christianity are "not incompatible" but that much that is said by psychotherapists is incompatible with the true Christian faith because it reduces religion to a would-be psychological system. His aim in this book is to show how "explanations" of theology and psychology differ and how they may be related. Largely concerned with Jung's complex psychological "system," he discusses the doctrine of justification by faith in relation to Jung's concept of the individuation process. He also discusses the topics of the bondage of sin, penitence, projection, faith, the Self, and Christ.
(Bk.revs.: Frontier '59/2:2224-6; Lib] '59/84:3138; NYTimesBkR 20S'59:40; PastorPsy Ap'59/10:61-4; PerkSchTh Fall'59/13:35-6; ReformThR Oc'59/18:89-90; ReligEd '597 54:545; StudlrQR '59/48:123-5; JAnPsy '60/5:166-70; JBibRel '60/28:452 + ; Month '60/23:114-15; Person '60/41:390-1; ScotJTheol '60/13:192-4; Theol '60/63:247-9; TimesLitSup 15Ap'60:xvi; CrossCurr '61/71:389)

Jung's Analytical Psychology and Religion, by C. A. Meier. (Orig. title: Jung and Analytical Psychology. Newton Centre, Mass.: Andover Newton Theological Seminary, 1959p.) Carbondale and Edwardsville, 111.: Arcturus Paperbacks/ Southern Illinois U. Press, 1977p; London and Amsterdam: Feiffer & Simons, 1977p (88pp.).

Originally given as four lectures to theological students and rearranged in the 1977 edition to deal with what Jung called the "religious factor," Meier's book follows the evolution of Jung's ideas on analytical psychology in the first three chapters, stressing the word association test that led to his theory of the complexes. He uses numerous examples in his discussion of the interpretation of dreams, using his knowledge of mythology, symbolism, and ancient rituals, particularly the healing practice of incubation in Greece about which he has written at length. He recognizes his limitation in covering such a complex subject as psychology and religion; and he emphasizes Jung's view that the acquisition or restoration of a religious disposition is essential for
(Bk.revs.: Spring '60:151-2; JAnPsy '77/22:367)

Eleusis: Archetypal Image of Mother and Daughter, by C. Kerenyi. (Dutch: Eleusis: de heiligste mysterien van Griekenland. The Hague: Servire, 1960.) London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1967; New York: Pantheon Books (Bollingen Series LXV: 4), 1967* (Archetypal Images in Greek Religion, 4); New York: Schocken Books, 1977p (257 + xxxvii, incl. 21-p. index, 17-p. bibl., 26-p. ref. notes, 89 illus.).

In his series of studies on Greek existence, Kerenyi examines the Eleusi-nian gods as "archetypal images," defining archetype as a "primordial figure" that is not only typical of a particular cult but of human nature in general. He reconstructs the geographical, chronological, and mythological settings of the goddesses Demeter and Persephone, describing the lesser mysteries and preparations for the great mysteries, and the secret of Eleusis with its procession and birth in fire accompanied by a beatific vision. He also provides a hermeneutical essay on the meaning of the mysteries of the grain, the pomegranate seed, and the vine, as well as the duality of the mother-daughter vision of the feminine source of life, which is the common source of life for men and women alike.
(Bk.revs.: BkRDig '67:715; Choice '67/4:855; Lib] '67/92:2416-17; LibJBkR '67:371; Spring '67:152; JAnPsy '68/13:171-2; VaQR '68/44:cxxxii; EngHistR '69/84:373; ReprBulBkR '77/22n4:37)

Psychotherapy and Religion, by Josef Rudin. (Ger.: Psychotherapie und Religion: Seele, Person, Gott. Olten, Switzerland: Walter Verlag, 1960.) Notre Dame, Ind. and London: U. of Notre Dame Press, 1968 (244 + xiii, incl. 2-p. index, 3-p. letter by Jung to the author).

Recognizing the real of apparent opposition between the new insights of depth psychology and the basic convictions of theology, especially of moral theology, Jesuit Rudin addresses the concern that the energy-steam rising out of the unconscious from the "nature-given life-dynamic" may not only illuminate but may damage consciousness. He values the contribution of Jung's depth psychology as a bridge between the upper and lower layers of the psyche in reawakening understanding of great primordial symbolism of psychically productive life. He discusses the topics of the "normal man"; soul anxiety; aspects of personal development, depth psychology and freedom; personal life; religious experience in the conscious and the unconcious; Answer to Job; the neuroticized God-image; psychotherapy and spiritual guidance; neurosis; perfectionism, and piety; and reflections on prayer life.
(Bk.revs.: LibJ '68/93:562; LibJBkR '68:524; BkRDig '69:1140; Choice '69/6:440; Month '69/41:58--9; Spring '69:149--50; Thom '69/33:395--7; PastorPsy Ja'70/21:54--5; JSciStudRel '70/9:328--9; JPastorCare '71/25:201--2)

Soul and Psyche: An Enquiry into the Relationship of Psychotheapy and Religion, by Victor White. London: Collins & Harvill Press, 1960; New York: Harper & Bros., 1960 (312, incl. 4-p. index of proper names, 47-p. ref. notes).

Asserting a common ground between soul and psyche whether approached from theological or psychological standpoints, White explores the connections in lectures given at the University of Birmingham during 1958— 59, drawing upon his long personal friendship and correspondence with Jung. He discusses the common ground of religion and psychology and interprets the Jungian approach to religion before examining the topics of symbol and dogma in psychology and in Christianity, the trinity and quatern-ity, the missing feminine, the feminine in Christianity, the interpretation of evil, the predicament of the psychotherapist, health and holiness, and religion and mental health. His points of disagreement with Jung, especially Jung's Answer to Job, are dealt with more specifically in the appendixes.
(Bk.revs.: Biackf '60/41:183-5; ChryToday 5D'60/5:33; ChurchQR '60/161:505-6; Chman D'60/174:13; Harvest '60/2:76-7; Month '60/23:370-2; Tabl '60/214:276; TimesLitSup '60:469; 20Cen '60/167:484 + ; CrossCurr '61/11:389; DownR '61/79:61-3; HomPastorR'61/61:504; JAnPsy '61/6:171-5; LuthQJy'61/13:186-7; Spring'61:157-8; TheolStud '61/22:326; Thought '61/336:144-5; InwLight '62/n63:43-6; JRelHealth '62/2:85-6)

Evil, edited by the Curatorium of the C. G. Jung Institute, Zurich. (Ger.: Das Bose. Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1961/Studien aus dem C. G. Jung-Institut, vol. XIII.) Evanston, 111.: Northwestern University Press, 1967 (Studies in Jungian Thought) (211 + xii, incl. 15-p. index, 2-p. foreword by Jung).

This book consists of a series of seven lectures given at the Jung Institute in Zurich during 1959—60 on the subject of evil. The essays deal with the problem of evil in mythology (Carl Kerenyi), the problem of evil in fairy tales (Marie-Louise von Franz), the principle of evil in Eastern religions (Geo Widengren), evil in the cinema (Martin Schlappner), aspects of evil in the creative (Karl Schmid), evil from the psychological point of view (Liliane Frey-Rohn), and the philosophical concepts of good and evil (Karl Lowith). (Bk.revs.: JAnPsy '68/13:173-5; Spring '68:137-8)

The Springs of Creativity: The Bible and the Creative Process in the Psyche, by Heinz Westman. New York: Atheneum Publications, 1961; Toronto: Longmans Green Canada, 1961; London: Routledge 8t Kegan Paul, 1961; Wilmette, 111.: Chiron Publications, ed. 2 1986p* (271, incl. 5-p. ref. notes, 75 illus., 3-p. intro. by Sir Herbert Read).

Using the case of "Joan," which was presented in 1958 to the International Congress of Analytical Psychology, as the basis for this book on creativity from a religious perspective, Westman first discusses personal identification and anxiety, masks (persona) and shadow, archetypes and the archetypal Self, and the nature of dreams. This is followed by portions taken from his 1936 Eranos Lecture which deal with psychological interpretations of Old Testament symbolism which shifts from images of wholeness to images of opposites in Genesis, Cain and Abel, Noah, Ham, Lot, Abraham and the "sacrifice" of Isaac, Jacob and Esau, and the Book of Job. Finally, through fifty-two black-and-white and four color drawings, he illustrates Joan's quest for self-expression, self-knowledge, and individuality.
(Bk.revs.: LibJ '61/86:2325; BrJPsy '62/53:209--11; JAnPsy '62/6:175--6; JRelHealth '62/ 1:187--8; PsyanQ '62/31:272--6; UnionSemQR '62/17:285-6; BrJPsychi '63/109:160; BulMennClin '63/27:52; ArtJ '64--65/24:212 + ; SFJInstLib '87/7n2:23-50)

Intersection and Beyond, by Elizabeth Boyden Howes. San Francisco: Guild for Psychological Studies Publishing House, 1963; rev. and enlarged 1971p* as vol. 1; vol. 2 1986p* (vol. 1: 218, incl. 24-p. index; vol. 2: 139, incl. 9-p. index).

The Guild for Psychological Studies runs a program to train therapists and group leaders using a combination of Jung's and Kunkel's approaches to analytical psychology. In volume 1, Howes commingles religious values and analytical psychology in her discussions of the religious function of the ego; the ethics of personal freedom; forgiveness as wound and healing; the significance of physical death in the death-rebirth mystery cycle; the forgotten feminine in the gospels; and the Son of Man as expression of the Self. In volume 2 she continues to weave together religion and depth psychology by discussions of the kingdom of God and the Self; mythic truth, historical truth, and religious consciousness; descent-ascent as the journey of the Holy Spirit; transformation in the life of Jung; religious imagery and Jung; new symbolic meanings in liturgy, creed, and prayer; the darkness of God; and the division and reconciliation of opposites.
(Bkrevs.: InwLight '73/n83:46; PastorPsy '74/28:211)

The Diary of a Mystic, by Edward Thornton. London: Allen 8c Unwin, 1967; New York: Hillary House Publishers, 1967 (180, incl. 3-p. index, 2-p. foreword by C. A. Meier).
Associated with the New Delhi Institute of Psychic and Spiritual Research, Thornton here shares his "divine" experience of mystical promptings which he believes is ultimately available to every person. He presents some of his personal background out of which his inner life emerged, citing Jung's great work in the realm of psychology as particularly important in throwing light on the nature and significance of the unconscious psyche.
(Bk.revs.: TimesLitSup '68:326; JRel '69/49:68; RforRel '69/28:151)

The Face of the Deep: The Religious Ideas of C. G. Jung, by Charles B. Hanna. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1967 (203, incl. 7-p. ref. notes, 2-p. gloss.).
Offering this work in the spirit of concern about a certain kind of sterility that comes over the Christian outlook on life and willing to face a challenge that is directed toward it by Jung, Hanna listens to Jung's testimonies to the value and importance of the deepest aspects of Christian faith while disagreeing with some of Jung's critique. He discusses God and the unconscious; God and God-image; God and the dawn of consciousness; sin, guilt and the shadow; symbolic thinking; psychology of the soul; and synchronicity.
(Bk.revs.: KirkR '67/35:188; LibJ '67/92:1163; LibJBkR '67:364; TheolStud '67/28:891; BkRDig '68:560; Choice '68/5:38; InwLight '68/n73:50--1; JAnPsy '68/13:172; Spring '68:136--7)

Insearch: Psychology and Religion, by James Hillman. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1967p; New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1967p; 1970p; Dallas: Spring Publications, 1979p; reissue 1984p* (Jungian Classics Series, 2) (126 pp.).

Drawing on lectures given to ministers concerned with analytical psychology and pastoral counseling, Hillman aims to "re-mythologize" human experiences with religious implications, his emphasis being on the inner search ("insearch"). He examines human encounters and the inner connec tion in analysis and counseling, following with discussions of the unconscious as experience (inner life, dealing with the concept of "soul," soul and the unconscious, complexes, moods, dreams, religious concerns of the soul, and rediscovery of inner myth and religion). He then comments on the unconscious as a moral problem (inner darkness, including the morality of analysis, images of the shadow, moral struggles, conscience, self-regulation, the Devil and archetypal evil), concluding with an analysis of anima reality and religion (inner femininity, including anima figures and their effects, emotions and moods, the feminine side of comparative religion, problems of sexual love, marriage, psychosomatics, and the feminine ground of the religious movement).
(Bk.revs.: Frontier '67/10:143--5; LondQHolb '67/192:351--2; Month '67/37:375--6; PerkSchTh Wint--Spr'67--68/21:80--1; PubW 25D'67/192:55; TimesLitSup '67:514; Bk--RDig '68:610; Bklist '68/64:1010; CathLib '68/39:612; ChrCen '68/85:234; Colloq '68/ 3:90--2; CrossCurr '68/18:368--70; HeythJ '68/9:85--7; JAnPsy '68/13:164--6; JPastor--Care S'68/22:180--1; LibJ '68/93:556; LibJBkR '68:400; PastorPsy Ja'68/19:57--61; ReligEd '68/63:252; RforRel '68/27:759; SWJTheol '68/11:144; Spring '68:135--6; Theol '68/71:331--2; UnionSemQR '68/23:415--16; Encoun '69/30:177--8; LuthWorld '691 16:101--2; Person '69/50:405--6; StLukeJTh F'69/12:196--7; JSciStudRel '70/9:328--9; JAmAcadRel '73/14:292--3; RelStudR '80/6:278--85; JRelPsyRes Oc'86/9:237--40)

Jung, Gods, and Modern Man, by Antonio Moreno. Notre Dame, Ind.: U. of Notre Dame Press, 1970; London: Sheldon Press Book/S.P.C.K., 1974 +p (274 + xiii, incl. 5-p. index, 5-p. bibl.).

Moreno's aim is to examine Jung's main ideas about religious factors and the elements related to them and to make a critical analysis of Jung's controversial views about the Trinity, Christ, the Holy Ghost, mythology, and God as a quaternity that includes evil. He first discusses Jung's ideas on the collective unconscious, which he interprets as the source of religious factors and revelation, and on individuation, which he interprets as being intimately associated with the development of the archetype of the Self (identified with Christ). He then makes a critical analysis of Jung's ideas on religion and individuation. He concludes with discussions of Jung's ideas on evil, religion and myth, neurosis, and Nietzsche, appending an analysis of the relationship between dreams and the Christian life.
(Bk.revs.: AmJPsychi '71/128:246--7; CrossCrown '71/23:486; JPastorCare '71/25:199--201; PastorPsy '71/22:64; TheolStud '71/32:554--5; TheolToday '71/28:259--61; Thorn '71/35:549--50; AmJPsyth '72/26:139--40; HeythJ '72/13:237; JTheolStud '72/ns23:569--70; ChrScholR '73/3:65--7; ExposTimes '74/85:340; Theol '74/77:608--9; TimesLitSup '74:374; IntJPhRel 75/6:258-9)

The Kingdom Within: A Study of the Inner Meaning of Jesus' Sayings, by John A. Sanford. Philadelphia and New York: J. B. Lippincott, 1970p; New York and Ramsey, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1980p; San Francisco: Harper & Row, rev. 1987p* (188, incl. 7-p. index, 2-p. scripture index, 1-p. bibl.).

Relating Jesus' sayings to the insights of Jungian depth psychology, Sanford emphasizes the need for the unfolding of the whole personality from within as a balance to the outwardly oriented emphasis of the Church's institutional life and social situation. He first presents the concept of the kingdom of God within by analyzing the personality of Jesus, applying Jung's description of what comprises a person's totality and interpreting the images of the treasure of the kingdom. The remainder of the book consists of psychological-spiritual interpretations of the inner meaning of Jesus' sayings, including entering into the kingdom (recognizing the reality of the inner world and responding); the price of discipleship (following the call to the individual rather than collective way); the pharisee in each of us (mask of false outer personality); the inner adversary (shadow of the outer "front"); the role of evil and sin; the faith of the soul (connection to inner depths); the lost coin (unredeemed humanity within); and the coming of the kingdom.
(Bk.revs.: KirkR '70/38:266; LibJ '70/95:2266; LibJBkR '70:430; StLukeJTh Ja'71/14:62--3; JPastorCare '73/27:67; Tabl '81/235:502; JPsyTheol '83/11:55--8)

A Magic Dwells: A Poetic and Psychological Study of the Navaho Emergence Myth, by Sheila Moon. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan U. Press, 1970; San Francisco: Guild for Psychological Studies Publishing House, 1985p* (206 + ix, incl. 12-p. ref. notes).

Trained in analytical psychology, Moon sets forth a sample of the content and symbolism of a great religious tradition by describing and interpreting the Navaho Indian creation myth. She presents its symbols as being meaningful to the psychological and religious growth of the individual personality. She begins her poetic-psychological study with the topic of forms and images (creators and created, maternal substance, emerging directions, darkness and danger). She then discusses conflicting forces; witchcraft and holiness (use and misuse of evil); man and woman (place of crossing waters, the separation, sacrifice and relationship); and the consummation (form and flood, making the world breathe), concluding with a chapter of end and beginning, along with a synopsis of the emergence myth.
(Bk.revs.: AmAnth '71/73:1359--60; Choice '71/7:1585; ContemPsy '71/16:101 + 104; BkRDig 72:917)

Depth Psychology and Religious Belief, by Christopher Bryant. Mirfield, Yorkshire: Mirfield Publications, 1972p; London: Darton, Longman & Todd, rev. 1987p* (75 + v, incl. 1-p. foreword by R. F. Hobson).

From his standpoint as a Christian whose faith has been deepened by his study of psychology, and Jung's ideas in particular, Bryant aims to show how depth psychology can shed light on the experience of believing, citing Jung's statement that patients in middle life who came to him for psychological treatment never would really get well unless they acquired or recovered a religious attitude to life. He deals with depth psychology's view of human behavior as it relates to inner motives and unconscious fears and wishes, as well as the experience of God that is common to all, whether acknowledged or not. He also discusses the relationship of belief to maturity and self-realization, concluding with an outline of the kind of Christian belief which can stand up to the criticisms of psychologists.
(Bk.revs.: Month '73/6:127; NewBlackf '74/55:96; Theol '74/77:160--1; BrBkN '87:758)

Myths to Live By, by Joseph Campbell. New York: Viking Press, 1972; London: Condor Books/Souvenir Press, 1973; New York: Bantam Books, 1973p; 1978p; 1984p*; London: Paladin/Grafton Books, 1985p* (276 + x, incl. 6-p. index, 4-p. ref. notes, 2-p. intro. by Johnson Fairchild).

Comprised of twelve essays selected from a series of talks he gave at Cooper Union Forum during 1958—71, this work by Campbell describes and interprets the impact of science on myth; the emergence of mankind; the importance of rites; the separation of East and West and the confrontation of East and West in religion; the inspiration of oriental art; Zen; the mythology of love and mythologies of war and peace; and schizophrenia as the inward journey and the moon walk as the outward journey. He discusses individuation and his own belief (echoing Jung's) that the imageries of mythology and religion serve positive, life-furthering ends.
(Bk.revs.: BestSell '72/32:164; BkRDig '72:203-4; Choice 72/9:1118; Commonw '711 96:528-30; KirkR '72/40:167; Lib] '72/97:2420; LibJBkR '72:519; NYorker 3Jn'72/ 48:111; PubW 14F'72/201:63; SatR 24Jn'72/55:68; JRelThought '73/30:648; PsyanQ '751 44:157-63; PsyPersp '90/22:187)

Zeus and Hera: Archetypal Image of Father, Husband, and Wife by C. Kerenyi. (Ger.: Zeus und Hera: Urbild des Voters, des Gotten, und der Frau. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1972.) London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1975*; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press (Bollingen Series LXV:5) (Archetypal Images in Greek Religion, 5), 1975* (211 + xvii, incl. 12-p. index, 14-p. bibl.).

Tracing the history of Greek religion from an archetypal point of view, Kerenyi reconstructs the beginnings of the Zeus tradition and its early history. He considers the emergence of the Olympian divine family to be the expression of a humane religion with the father image of Zeus as supreme god and the image of Hera as wife in the archetypal form of marriage. He also discusses Poseidon as a father and husband archetype, as well as interpreting the relationship of Zeus and Hera, brother and sister joined in "sacred marriage," as the restoration of a bisexual totality. He ends with a description of Hera cults in the Peloponnese, Euboea, and Boeotia along with the significance of the Great Goddess Hera's temples on the island of Samos and in Paestum.
(Bk.revs.: Choice '76/13:539; Spec 29My'76/236:32; VaQR Sum'76/52:91; ClassR '787 ns28:287--9; ClassWorld '78/72:246--7)

The New Polytheism: Rebirth of the Gods and Goddesses, by David L. Miller. New York: Harper & Row, 1974; Dallas: Spring Publications, ed.2 1981p* (148, incl. 6-p. index, 8-p. ref. notes, 6-p. prefatory letter by Henry Corbin, 34-p. appendix by James Hillman, incl. 5-p. ref. notes).

From his experience of "imaginal theologizing," in which polytheistic theology is grounded in stories of gods and goddesses, Miller proposes that such stories, like dreams and angels, are images. He explores the theological and philosophical relationships between monotheism and polytheism in order to determine whether they are mutually exclusive modes of consciousness. He examines the possibility of remythologizing Western thought, not to give up logic and reason but to enable ancient stories of gods and goddesses to put life and feeling back into Western thinking. He also discusses the task of "re-relating" religious explanations to life experiences by way of a polytheistic psychology, citing Hillman's arguments on archetypal psychology. A lengthy appendix by Hillman entitled "Psychology: Monotheistic or Polytheistic" is included.
(Bk.revs.: PubW 3D'73/204:39; AnglTheolR '74/56:500--1; BkRDig '74:832; Choice '747 11:1331; ChrCen '74/91:323; Chman Jn--Jy'74/188:16; Critic My'74/32:77--8; Horiz '747 1:120--1; JAmAcadRel '74/42:344--9; JSciStudRel S'74/13:376--8; LibJ '74/99:370; LibJBkR '74:413; LuthQ '74/26:464--6; ReligEd '74/69:755--6; ReligHum '74/8:142--3; RdigLife '74/43:513--14; RBksRel(W) My'74/3:5; SWJTheol '74/17:119--20; DrewGate 75/46:147--51; CrossCurr 76/26:110--11; Dialog 76/15:90--1; JAmAcadRel 76/44:745--6;Parab Oc'81/6:109--11; JAnPsy '83/27:388--90; RelStudR '83/9:242; BksRel S'86/14:9--10)

Psyche and the Bible: Three Old Testament Themes, by Rivkah Scharf Kluger. New York and Zurich: Spring Publications for the Analytical Psychology Club of New York, 1974p (144 pp.).

Consisting of lectures given in Zurich and London during 1946—56, this book by Kluger presents three themes from the Old Testament, the first dealing with the idea of the chosen people (42 pp.), which she approaches from the point of view of the symbolism of the individuation process. She also interprets psychological aspects of the relation of King Saul to the spirit of God (36 pp.) and of the Queen of Sheba in the Bible and in legends (60pp.).

The Return to Faith: Finding God in the Unconscious, by Clyde H. Reid. New York: Harper & Row, 1974 (106 + xii, incl. 14 illus.).

Reflecting on the state of religion while studying at the C. G. Institute of Zurich, Reid developed the theme of an emerging religion of consciousness which would allow a person to integrate mind and body, and consciousness and the unconscious, rather than simply maintaining the carefully monitored, rational, conscious self favored by many religious persons. Here he examines the meaning of full consciousness from the point of view of analytical psychology, and discusses some myths that must die (Christian exclusiveness; original sin; the nice guy; morality; the masculine God). He affirms that religion is not something one joins, but is something one is.
(Bk.revs.:  BkRDig  '74:1006;  ChrCen  '74/91:708; JPsyTheol '74/2:325--6; LibJ 74/ 99:1966; LibJBkR '74:440; Critic '75/33n3:67-8 + )

Religion and the Unconscious, by Ann Ulanov and Barry Ulanov. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1975; ed.2 1985p* (287, incl. 8-p. index, 28-p. ref. notes).

The Ulanovs identify the pains and pleasures that accompany efforts to define one's own identity or the identities of others. In relation to that struggle, they emphasize the extraordinary need and use that religion and depth psychology have for each other, neither usurping the other. They urge a knowing acceptance of a certain imbalance or turmoil that one's understanding of the nature of consciousness and the unconscious brings and the pains which are associated with sin and moral transgression in religion and with neurosis and psychosis in depth psychology. Following an interpretation of the convergences and divergences of conscious and unconscious, as well as the function of religion for the human psyche and the function of psychology for religion, they discuss the topics of soul and psyche; Jesus as figure and person; symbol and sacrament; history and ethics after the discovery of the unconscious; healing; moral masochism and religious submission; suffering and salvation; and reality.
(Bk.revs.: KirkR '75/43:1172; LibJ '75/100:1639; LibJBkR '75:416; AnglTheolR '76/58:516--17; BkRDig '76:1226; Choice '76/13:540; CrossCurr '76/26:377--81; Horiz '76/ 3:298 + ; JPastorCare '76/30:208--9; JRelHeakh '76/15:302--3; LivLight 76/13:624; ReligLife '76/45:510--11; RelStudR Oc'76/2:57; SocAn '76/37:368--9; ChrCen '77/94:204--5; ChrScholR '77/7:215--16; JPsyTheol '77/5:265--6; PastorPsy 77/26:481; ReligEd '77/72:240; UnionSemQR '77/32:122--5; JAmAcadRel '78/46:107)

Dionysos: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life, by C. Kerenyi. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1976; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U. Press (Bollin-gen Series LXV:2) (Archetypal Images in Greek Religion), 1976* (474 + xxxvii, incl. 22-p. index, 30-p. bibl., 28-p. Kerenyi bibl., 2-p. biography of Kerenyi, 146 illus.).

Writing from a dual viewpoint as a historian of religion (with close attention to traditional myths, cultural actions, and festivals of the ancient world) and as a historian of Greek and Minoan culture, Kerenyi presents a historical account of the religion of Dionysos from its beginnings in the Minoan culture down to its transition to a cosmic and cosmopolitan religion of late antiquity under the Roman Empire. He deals with Dionysos as the archetypal image of indestructible life in terms of the "quiet, powerful, vegetative element" of the life force.
(Bk.revs.: BkRDig '77:718; Choice '77/14:880; LibJ '77/102:819; LibJBkR '77:476; VaQR Sum77/53:110; ClassWorld '78/72:246; Quad '78/llnl:96--9)

The Other Side of Silence: A Guide to Christian Meditation, by Morton T. Kelsey. New York and Paramus, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1976 +p*; London: S.P.C.K., 1977p* (314 + viii, incl. 6-p. ref. notes, 8 illus.).

Acknowledging that Jungian psychology has helped his understanding of the spiritual world, Kelsey presents a "practical manual" for encountering God that utilizes a unique Christian method of meditation. Starting with the problem of intimacy (with God) that is involved in meditation, as well as the relation of psychological types to the inner life and how art is related to meditation, he lays out the elements of the atmosphere or environment in which meditation can grow; he then considers preparations for the inward journey, the uses of images in meditation, and adventures on the other side of silence.
(Bk.revs.: NatCathRep 5N'76/13:12; USCath Oc'76/41:50--1; Amer '77/136:133--4; BkRDig 77:714; ChrCen '77/94:513--14; Chman F'77/191:17; LibJ '77/102:394; LibJBkR 77:475--6; LivLight '77/14:479; LumenVitae '77/32:365; NewRBksRel F'77/1:24; Parab 77/2n3:104--5; StAnth My'77/84:47; SisToday '77/48:411; SpirLife '77/23:120; Tabl 77/231:769; TheolStud '77/38:207; AnglTheolR '78/60:373--4; JPastorCare '78/ 32:69--70; ReligEd '78/73:110--11; Theol '78/81:224--6; HeythJ '79/20:358; ModChman 79/ns22:129--30; CistStud '80/15:291--5)

Prospects for the Soul: Soundings in Jungian Psychology and Religion, by Vera von der Heydt. London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1976 (110, incl. 2-p. bibl.).

Expressing gratitude to Jung, von der Heydt presents essays based on her analytical experiences. Following interpretations of aspects of the parent archetype, the animus, psychic energy, personal enthusiasm, and loneliness, she examines the relationship of analytical psychology and religion with chapters on Jung and religion, alchemy, psychological implications of the dogma of the Assumption, the treatment of Catholic patients, and fear, guilt, and confession.
(Bkrevs.: Econ 3Ap'76/259:133--4; Harvest '76/22:138--9; Month '76/9:283--4; JAnPsy '77/22:77--8)

Subject and Psyche: Ricoeur, Jung, and the Search for Foundations, by Robert M. Doran. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1977 (313 + vi, incl. 4-p. bibl.).

Asserting that he is using neither depth psychology nor systematic theology, but theological method, Doran searches for foundations for theology. He focuses on basic notions of Jungian analytical psychology, clarifying some ambiguities in Jung's thought with the aid of Paul Ricoeur's philosophy of the symbol and Bernard Lonergan's analysis of human intentionality. He begins with a long treatment of Lonergan's thought and then discusses immediacy, symbols, sublations, and psyche and intentionality. He reviews Ricoeur's reading of and debate with Freud and describes his own reading and debate with Jung. Topics include mystery and myth; individuation; psychic energy; intentionality and psyche; psychic conversion; and the psychic and the psychoid. He concludes with a chapter on psyche and theology, emphasizing Lonergan's thought on the function of psychic self-appropriation in relation to the foundations of theology.
(Bk.rev.: TheolStud '79/40:780-2)

Imago Dei: A Study of C. G. Jung's Psychology of Religion, by James W. Heisig. Lewisburg, Penn.: Bucknell U. Press, 1978*; London: Assoc. University Presses, 1979* (253, incl. 13-p. index, 30-p. bibl.) (Studies in Jungian Thought).

In consideration of Jung's struggle with God, which Heisig evaluates as the typical turning point of sympathy for or alienation from Jung's life work, Heisig examines the entire body of Jung's writings with a focus on the notion of the imago Dei (God-image) in order to critique Jung's "strange and powerful genius." He traces the life story of the theme from Jung's early years (writings on the psychology of the unconscious and psychological types) through the middle years (writings on psychology and religion) to the later years (writings on Answer to Job and Jung's Memories, Dreams, Reflections). Following critical comments on Jung's methodology, he presents his own "factual material" about the imago Dei and discusses his interpretation of psychological theory, science, and therapy.
(Bk.revs.: BkRDig '79:360; Choice '79/16:1038; LibJ '70/104:2219; LibJBkR 79:304; JAmAcadRel '80/48:639; JSciStudRel '80/19:79; Harvest '81/27:168--70; JRel '81/61:119--20)

Occult Psychology: A Comparison of Jungian Psychology and the Modern Qabalah, by Alta J. LaDage. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn, 1978 (193 + x, incl. 9-p. index, 2-p. bibl., 5 illus.).

Speaking to the intuitive mind and the unconscious rather than to the thinking mind, LaDage examines the inner correspondences between the Qabalah (Jewish occult philosophy and mystical interpretation of Scripture) and Jung's psychology. She places Jung in the mainstream of the Western occult tradition in consideration of his use of alchemy, much of whose cosmology and philosophical writings were derived from the Qabalah. Her topics include the eternal quest; the roots of the Qabalah; the universal force;
the collective unconscious; the archetypes as psychological factors; the four functions; and the process of individuation.
(Bk.rev.: JPhenPsy '79/10:236--7)

Changing of the Gods: Feminism and the End of Traditional Religions, by Naomi R. Goldenberg. Boston: Beacon Press, 1979 +p* (152 + viii, incl. 4-p. index, 8-p. ref. notes).
The women's movement has brought about religious changes on a massive scale with a re-evaluation of the roles that men and women have been taught to consider as God-given. In light of this, Goldenberg examines the need of Christianity and Judaism to adapt to nonsexist culture in order to survive. A significant part of the book is devoted to Jungian psychology and religion. Topics include the search for a living religion; how to build a community; archetypes; Jung's discovery of the religious process within; feminism and God; oedipal prisons; Lilith and Mary; androgynes; feminist witchcraft; mysticism; and excursions into dream and fantasy.
(Bk.revs.: Anima '79/6:76--7; BkRDig '79:479; Bklist '79/15:1262; Choice '79/16:857; ChrCen '79/96:826; KirkR '79/47:235--6; LibJ '79/104:1468; LibJBkR '79:399; NewRBksRel Jn'79/3:22; NYTimesBkR 29Jy'79:10--11 + ; PubW 5Mr'79/215:94; CrossCurr '80/30:340--2; JAmAcadRel '80/48:141--2; JEcumStud '80/17:525--6; KliattFall'80/14:37; Parab N'80/5:118--20; Signs '80/6:328--33; SpirToday '80/32:376; UTorQ '80/49:506--12;ChrScholR '81/10:179--80; RelSmdR '81/7:45; StudRel '81/10:136--7; WomStudlntQ '81/4:284; InwLight '82/n98:42--4; JRel '82/62:74--5)

Discovering God Within, by John R. Yungblut. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1979p (197, incl. 3-p. ref. notes).

Addressing himself to some "unknown seeker" who may discover in those hidden places of the heart and mind what Wordsworth called "obstinate questionings," Yungblut speaks directly to the interior being of those who may be persuaded to cultivate the mystical or contemplative faculty in themselves. He builds on insights from depth psychology, particularly from Jung, in presenting the mystical way in Christianity, in which he discusses the meaning of religion, the meaning of mysticism, the cultivation of the mystical faculty, and the vagaries and aberrations of the mystical way. He describes some varieties of Christian mysticism, in which he interprets Jesus as the Jewish mystic, the Christ-mysticism of Paul, the God-mysticism of the fourth Gospel (John), the aesthetic mysticism of Augustine, the philosophical mysticism of Meister Eckhart, and the material mysticism of Teilhard de Chardin.
(Bk.revs.: Choice '79/16:1041; LibJ '79/104:1149; LibJBkR '79:413; NewRBksRel Oc'79/ 4:18; ReformR '79/33:42; JAmAcadRel '80/48:628--9; ReligLife '80/49:247--9; SpirToday '80/32:73; PersRelStud '82/9:92--3)

The Feminine Dimension of the Divine, by Joan Chamberlain Engelsman. Phi-1 delphia: Westminster Press,  1979p; Wilmette, 111.: Chiron Publications, 1987p* (203, incl. 3-p. index, 22-p. bibl., 21-p. ref. notes).

Engelsman focuses on mythological and theological speculation about feminine symbols for God, particularly from a Jungian point of view. She recognizes the view of feminists who consider the nature of Jungian arche-  types to be stereotypical and urges common sense and a raised consciousness to minimize some of the more obvious problems of criticism. She begins with a description of Jung's concept of archetypes, particularly feminine archetypes, and Freud's understanding of the phenomena of repression and then  traces the feminine dimension of the divine in the Hellenistic world (Demeter  and Isis), in the expression and repression of Sophia, and in the patristic  doctrines of Mariology, ecclesiology, and Christology.
(Bk.revs.: LibJ '79/104:2106--7; LibJBkR '79:397; BkRDig '80:357; Choice '80/17:233--4; CrossCurr '80/30:342--3; Dialog '80/19:239--40; ReformR '80/33:170; ReligLife W 49:242--3; RelStudR '80/6:310; RforRel '80/39:477--8; StLukeJTh '80/24:56--8; SpirToday '80:32:71; TrinSemR '80/2:43--4; TSF '80/4:13; AnglTheolR '81/63:212--14; Horiz '81/8:142--4; Interp '81/35:87--8; JAmAcadRel '81/49:159--60; PersRelStud '81/8:163--4; InwLight '82/n98:48--51; Anima '83/9:153--5; JEcumStud '84/21:330--1)

Imagination Is Reality: Western Nirvana in Jung, Hillman, Barfield, and Cassirer, by Roberts Avens. (Orig. title: Imagination: A Way Toward Western Nirvana. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1979.) Dallas: Spring Publications, 1980* (127, incl. 5-p. bibl., 19-p. ref. notes).

Aiming to synthesize, by circumambulation, the imaginal "inscape" of the psyche, Avens examines the work of a quaternity of Western thinkers (Jung and Hillman at the psychological end of the spectrum and Ernst Cassirer and Owen Barfield at the literary-philosophical end), who regard imagination (imagemaking) as the characteristically human faculty which works toward self-transcendence and reconciliation of spirit and world. He first explores the phenomenon of imagination as the common ground of both Western and Eastern spirituality and then envisions imagining as a potential Western alternative to Eastern nirvana, satori, or Brahman-Atman.
(Bk.revs.: CrossCurr '79/29:367--9; Choice '80/18:165; Harvest '81/27:180--2)

The Dark Twin: A Study of Evil—and Good, by Ivor Moorish. Romford: L. N. Fowler, 1980p* (144, incl. 3-p. bibl., ref. notes, 3 illus.).

Attracted by Jung's writings on the problems of good and evil, and basing his study to a very large extent upon Jung's concepts of symbolism and archetypes, Moorish suggests that the eternal mystery of the problem of evil exists within one's own innermost nature rather than on some external and intangible cosmic level. He first examines the background of the concept of the good and evil twins in mythology and then discusses the shadow, the divided self, the lamed or blemished self, the freedom of the self, the integrated self, and the existential reality of the self.

Facing the Gods, edited by James Hillman. Dallas: Spring Publications, 1980p* (172 + iv, incl. 5-p. index, 19-p. ref. notes).

Proposing that one must know the gods and goddesses of myth in order to face the archetypal backgrounds that affect personal experience, the authors of nine papers present the psychological possibilities of workings of those archetypes. Editor Hillman provides two essays, on Dionysos in Jung's writings and the necessity of abnormal psychology, while others deal with Artemis as a mythological image of girlhood (Kerenyi); the Amazon problem (Rene Malamud); Hephaistos as a pattern of introversion (Murray Stein); Red Riding Hood and Grand Mother Rhea as images in a psychology of inflation (David Miller); Hestia as a background of psychological focusing (Barbara Kirksey); Hermes' heteronymous appellations (William Doty); and Ariadne as mistress of the labyrinth (Christine Downing).
(Bk.revs.: Choice '81/18:723; Harvest '81/26:186)

The Psyche as Sacrament: C. G. Jung and Paul Tillich, by John P. Dourley. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1981p* (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 7) (121, incl. 5-p. index, 2-p. gloss, of Jungian terms).

Aiming at a systematic analysis and correlation of Jung's and Tillich's views, Dourley compares the positions they take on the nature of religious consciousness and its symbolic expression for the psychological meanings of God, Christ, the Church, and the future. His topics are the apologetic problem; psyche as sacrament; God, the union of opposites, and the Trinity; the search for the nonhistorical Jesus; aspects of the Spirit; and the Church, morality, and eschatology. He perceives that the psychological task and the religious task are one in the depths of the soul (psyche).
(Bk.revs.: CanBkRAn '81:93--4; Choice '82/19:777; Harvest '82/28:157--8; PsyPersp '82/ 13:100--2; Quad '82/15n2:73--5; RelStudR '85/11:40; StudRel '85/14:510--12; TorJTheol '86/2:142--4)

Christs: Meditations on Archetypal Images in Christian Theology, by David Miller. New York: Seabury Press, 1981* (200 + xxiv, incl. 6-p. index, 36-p. ref. notes).

In "re-visioning" Christianity's traditional forms of thought in doctrines, teachings and beliefs whose luster and lively images lie dormant and well hidden in the unconscious, Miller presents the idea of a polytheistic, archetypal theology with a focus on the doctrine of Christ. He examines the images of the theology of Christ (Good Shepherd, Clown, Great Teacher) as archetypal ideas that impress most profoundly on the life of the self or psyche ("soul"). He explores the archetypal images of not only the gods of Greece but also contemporary imaginal versions, such as the "shepherd" in Shakespeare and in Eliot, the "fool" in Joyce and in Gogol, and the "teacher" in Hopkins and in Baudelaire, showing how fundamental christological images impinge on human experience today.
(Bk.revs.: ChrCen '81/98:1234; NatCathRep 11S'81/17:19; TheolStud '81/42:709--10; AnglTheolR '82/64:267--9; Commonw '82/109:542--3; ReligHum '83/17:197--8)

Evil: The Shadow Side of Reality, by John A. Sanford. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1981*; 1987p* (161, incl. 5-p. index).

Sanford examines the nature and reasons for evil from the standpoint of the unconscious in order that he may learn more about the nature of God. His approach to the problem of evil and the relationship of evil to God begins with an analysis of ego-centered and divine perspectives on evil, followed by analyses of the problem of evil in mythology, the Old Testament, and the New Testament. He also discusses the shadow side of reality; Jesus and Paul and the shadow; the problem of shadow and evil in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde; and the devil in post-Biblical mythology and folklore. He concludes with an interpretation of the ontology of evil.
(Bk.revs.: BestSell Ag'81/41:193; Choice '81/19:393; LibJ '81/106:1086; SpirLife '81/ 27:254; TheolStud '81/42:712--13; AnglTheolR '82/64:421--2; BestSell D'82/42:360; BkRDig '82:1178; PastorPsy '82/31:67--9; PsyPersp '82/13:196--200; RelStudBul '82/ 2:36; TheolToday '82/39:112--13; JAmAcadRel '83/51:703--4; JPsyTheol '83/11:55--8; RBksRel(C) F'84/12:5; RforRel '85/44:470--1; Zygon '85/20:83-9; InwLight '86/n101--102:64-7)

Jung's Hermeneutic of Doctrine: Its Theological Significance, by Clifford A. Brown. Chico, Calif.: Scholars Press, 1981p (American Acad. of Religion Dissertation Ser.) (226 + vii, incl. 23-p. appendixes, 9-p. bibl.).

The author believes that theological interpreters of Jung have been most prone to misconstrue him because they do not understand the nature of the method underlying his interpretive work and in particular his doctrinal studies. In this book, Brown calls attention to the hermeneutical nature of Jung's method and its respect for the inherently symbolic nature of Christian doctrine. He proposes to make the doctrine and its interpretation the common meeting-ground between Jungian psychology and Christian theology. After discussing Jung's theological interpreters, he analyzes symbol and psyche in Jung's psychology, Jung's symbolics of fantasy, and Jung's psychology of doctrine, concluding with the consideration of a theological appropriation of Jung.
(Bk.revs.: AnglTheolR '82/64:595--6; RelStudR '82/8:53; TheolStud '82/43:343--4; Horiz '83/10:408--10; JAmAcadRel '83/51:326)

Christo-Psychology, by Morton T. Kelsey. New York: Crossroad Pub. Co., 1982; 1984p*; London: Darton, Longman 8c Todd, 1983p* (143 + xii, incl. 6 diagrams).

Intended as a practical guide for people who wish to combine the insights of depth psychology with those of vital Christianity, this work by Kelsey interprets Jung's theories as offering no obstacles to the realization that salvation comes only through divine grace which alone brings about transformation within one's self. His topics include a personal journey into faith; the importance of Freud; Jung and Christianity; psychology and theology (the importance of experience); the soul and its capacities; psychological types and the religious way; counseling, individuation, and confession; love and transference; moving toward integration; dreams and the spiritual way; archetypes; and relating to the unconscious through active imagination and meditation.
(Bk.revs.: LibJ '82/107:2262; Amer '83/148:365; BestSell '83/42:475; BkRDig '83:796--7;ExposTimes '83/94:380--1; JPsyChry Spr'83/2:88; JPsyTheol '83/11:258; NewCath '83/ 226:235--6; RelStudR '83/9:243; StMarkThR '83/nll6:34--6; SisToday Ag'83/55:54; SpirToday '83/35:367; TheolToday '83/40:386; AnglTheolR '84/66:113--18; CrossCurr '84/34:125; HumDev '84/4:44; JAmAcadRel '84/52:628-9; LivLight '84/20:368; Month '84/17:71; DoctLife '85/35:179; Furrow '85/36:389; IrTheolQ '85/51:251; R&Expos '85/ 82:472--3; HeythJ '86/27:349; RforRel '86/45:311--12)

The Darkness of God: Theology After Hiroshima, by Jim Garrison. London: S.C.M. Publications, 1982p*; Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1983p (238 + x, incl. 3-p. bibl., 20-p. ref. notes).

Garrison focuses on the salvific potential of the bombing of Hiroshima and its implications for the death of the species in the nuclear age. He perceives God at work in the atom bomb, working divine wrath through man's arrogance but always creatively integrating the strands of evil and good together. He examines the question of evil in the context of the inherited Christian tradition and the "mighty acts of God," then looks at Hiroshima
as symbolizing the possibility of the cataclysmic termination of history. He discusses Hiroshima in dynamic tension with the confessional Christian heritage of the classical apocalypse and the wrath of God. His synthesis of Hiroshima and the apocalypse utilizes Jung's description of the psyche as composed of both light and dark dimensions. He discusses as well the topics of Jung's Answer to Job; Wotan; the theology of the cross; the revelation of John; modern thought on the antinomy (contradiction) of God; and the paradox of apocalypse. He concludes by characterizing Hiroshima as the gateway to Christ crucified.
(Bk.revs.: ExposTimes '83/94:153; ModChman '83/ns26:61; SpirLife '83/29:249; Theol '83/86:48--50; RBksRel(C) '84/12:8; Sojour Ag'84/13:36--8; WordWorld '84/4:203 + ; HeythJ '85/28:202; RelStudR '85/11:387; Colloq Oc'86/19:67--9; ConradG '86/4:284--90)

The End of God: Important Directions for a Feminist Critique of Religion in the Works of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, by Naomi Ruth Goldenberg. Ottawa: Ottawa U. Press, 1982p* (128 + xiv, incl. 6-p. bibl.).

Drawing on the theories of depth psychology of both Freud and Jung, Goldenberg examines the concerns of women who are estranged from Jewish and Christian traditions but who nonetheless struggle to retain a "religious" view of life. She believes that both Freudian and Jungian theory are surprisingly useful in understanding the iconographic impoverishment feminists are working to resolve and offer direction for the development of new images and symbols. She discusses the oppressiveness of the Jewish and Christian religions as described by Freud; alternatives to contemporary religions as envisioned by Jung and Jung's interest in adding feminine imagery to religion and to psychology; and the need for the perspective of depth psychology in a feminist critique of religion.
(Bk.rev.: CanBkRAn '82:97)

The Gnostic Jung and the Seven Sermons to the Dead, by Stephen A. Hoeller. Wheaton, 111., Madras, and London: Quest Books/Theosophical Publishing House, 1982*; 1989p* (239 + xxviii, incl. 11-p. index, 2-p. Gnostic gloss.).

Consisting of lectures given at UCLA's Institute for the Study of Religion in 1977, this work by Hoeller views Jung as a healer of souls and the culture, whose greatness he relates to the Gnostic belief concerning humanity's need for wholeness through gnosis (knowledge of spiritual truth). His interpretation of Jung's Seven Sermons to the Dead draws parallels between ancient Gnostic systems and Jung's psychology. He compares Jung's insights into the structure of the psyche and the nature of the collective unconscious, in terms of the dynamic of the individuation process, to the Gnostics' expression of their inner experience, given in mythological and poetic language. He considers moral fervor, faith in God or in political ideologies, advocacy of harsh law and rigid order, and apocalyptic, messianic enthusiasm as imperfect solutions to spiritual problems.
(Bk.revs.: Choice '83/20:1372; JAnPsy '83/28:388--9; WCoastRBks N--D'83/9:50; Quad '84/17nl:70--1; '87/20n2:77--9)

The Human Face of God: William Blake and the Book of Job, by Kathleen Raine. London: Thames & Hudson, 1982* (320, incl. 4-p. index, 2-p. bibl., 13-p. ref. notes, 130 illus.).

Although this book consists mainly of her description and interpretation of the twenty-one plates from Blake's illustrations to the Book of Job, along with many others of Blake's drawings, in the last section (32 pp.) Raine presents a discussion of Blake's Job and Jung's Job. Explaining that both Blake and Jung devoted their lives to their inner worlds and both had read and followed the same ancient Gnostic texts and other sources of knowledge, she examines the many resemblances and differences in their interpretation of the story of Job. Seeing it as the enactment of the individuation process, she considers Blake's view paradoxically more "Jungian" than that of Jung himself. She interprets the issue for Jung between God and Job as the confrontation between a righteous man and the evil in God and, for Blake, the breaking down of the moral self-righteousness of the human Selfhood (ego). Raine concludes that there is much in Blake's writings that supports Jung's view that opposites mutually exist in God.
(Bk.revs.: BkRDig '82:1100; BurlMag '82/124:772--3; Choice '82/20:64; ExposTimes '827 94:30--1; Harvest '82/28:162--4; JRoySoc '82/130:595--6; NewStates 2Ap'82/103:23; Resurg N-D'82/n95:40; Tabl '82/236:517--18; TimesLitSup '82:432; BrJISCen '83:76; Commonw '83/110:91--3; LATimesBkR 6F'83:4; Blake '86/19:151--5)

Imaginal Body: Para-Jungian Reflections on Soul, Imagination, and Death, by Roberts Avens. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1982 +p (252 + ix, incl. 3-p. bibl.).
Adopting a viewpoint of Jungian thought as "re-visioned" by Hillman's archetypal psychology, Avens reflects on the idea that one's presumed spirituality is a sham which must be discarded in favor of a "realistic" view of life, and he presents the idea of an "imaginal body" that stands between the two extremes of spiritualism and materialism. He explores the subjects of the ghost of imagination; mind and matter; reality of the psyche; death; the psyche and parapsychology; and the subtle body in traditional thought.

Jung and Christianity: The Challenge of Reconciliation, by Wallace B. Clift. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1982; 1986p; Blackburn, Australia: Dove, 1983 (169 + xiii, incl. 11-p. ref. notes).

Recognizing Jung's contributions to psychology and to the psychology of religion, Clift concurs with Jung's belief that the spiritual life of the individual is basic to human life in its search for meaning and in affirmation of the existence of God. He discusses the basic concepts in Jung's psychology (pastor of souls; psychic reality and psychic energy; structure of the psyche; stages of life; the process of psychotherapy) and Jung's contributions to the psychology of religion (individuation and the problem of opposites; the uniting quality of symbols; myth as meaning-giver; religious experience as the union of opposites). He follows with his interpretation of Jung's challenge to Christianity by analyzing the language of religion; the problem with dogma; the voice of God; evil as the "dark side" of God; evil and the resurrection symbol; and the Holy Spirit and the new age of consciousness.
(Bk.revs.: BestSell '82/42:158; BkRDig '82:242; Choice '82/19:1573; ChrCen '82/ 99:1290--1; LibJ '82/107:1228; NICM Fall'82/7:81--5; AnglTheolR '83/65:242--3; Commonw '83/110--124; Horiz '83/10:408--10; HumDev '83/4:46; JAmAcadRel '83/51:523; JPsyChry Sum'83/2:66; JPsyTheol '83/11:260--1; Quad '83/16n2:87--8; RelStudBul '83/ 3:51--4; RelStudR '83/9:49; RforRel '83/42:788; SpirToday '83/35:375; Chry&Lit '84/ 34n1:47-8; PastorPsy '84/32:291--2; RBksRel(C) Ja'84/12:8; JPsyTheol '85/13:217--18; JRel '86/66:355--6)

Mid-life: Psychological and Spiritual Perspectives, by Janice Brewi and Anne Brennan. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1982; ed.2 1987p* (146 + x, incl. 7-p. bibl.).
Jung believed that one cannot live the second half of life (the "afternoon") according to the program of the first half ("life's morning"). In the spirit of this statement, the authors, who conduct seminars and workshops, examine the life cycle and the midlife crisis from both psychological and theological perspectives, interpreting the midlife transition through the doctrines of creation and incarnation; and they offer insights for midlife tasks and spirituality in terms of Jungian personality theory. They also discuss the midlife task of clarifying and owning one's values; and they analyze storytelling and prayer as ways of dealing with midlife crisis and transition.
(Bk.revs.: ChrCen '82/99:1260; LibJ '82/107:643; LivLight '82/19:372; SisToday '82/ 54:178; SpirLife 82/281:125; BkRDig '83:185; HumDev Spr'86/8:46; StAnth '86/93:50)

Primary Speech: A Psychology of Prayer, by Ann Ulanov and Barry Ulanov. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1982p*; London: S.C.M. Press, 1985p* (178 + ix, incl. 42-p. ref. notes).
The Ulanovs examine the idea of the language of prayer as primary speech and as that primordial discourse in which one asserts one's own being. They focus on the relationships between prayer and desire, projection, fantasy, fear, aggression, and sexuality from a Jungian point of view. They also discuss praying for others, answers to prayer, and transfiguration. Appended is an 8 -page list of composers, poets, painters, and sculptors whose works of art have proved to be useful for the "art of prayer."
(Bk.revs.: LibJ '82:1886; Quad '83/16n2:75--6; JPsyTheol'84/12:69; RelStudR '84/10:48; SpirLife '84/30:183; AnglTheolR '85/67:110--11; ExposTimes '85/97:62; RforRel '85/ 44:942--3; TSF My-Jn'85/8:30 + ; BksRel '86/14:18; Theol '86/89:68-70)

Prophetic Ministry: The Psychology and Spirituality of Pastoral Care, by Morton Kelsey. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1982* (210 + xii, incl. 7-p. bibl., 4 illus.).

Consisting of papers written for various religious and psychological journals and lectures given at Notre Dame University, Kelsey's book asserts that Jung's view of the universe gives a new way of believing that the traditional view of the Church has a real validity. Two essays deal with Jung as philosopher and theologian and with Jung and the theological dilemma. He presents Jung's suggestions for finding a way out of meaninglessness and for the importance of religion and meaning for both psychological and physical health. Most of the book is concerned with the healing ministry, pastoral counseling, and ministry to the lonely, the homosexual, the violent, and the dying.
(Bk.revs.: Commonw '82/109:477; SisToday Ag-S'82/54:56; SpirLife '82/28:190; Amer '83/148:174--5; HumDev Wint'83/4:44; JPsyChry Fall'83/2:87; NewCath '83/226:46--7; PastorPsy '83/31:287--8; NatCathRep 16N'84/21:23; SWJTheol '84/26:112)

Spiritual Pilgrims: Carl Jung and Teresa of Avila, by John Welch. New York and Ramsey, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1982p* (228 + x, incl. 4-p. index, 3-p. bibl., 2-p. foreword by Morton Kelsey).

Studying Jung and Teresa of Avila together, Welch proposes that each illuminates the individual's interiority but from a different perspective — Jung from the relationship of the person to his or her own psychic depths, St. Teresa from the relationship of the person's soul to God. His theme is Christian individuation, the movement of one's personality toward wholeness as union with God deepens, and the potential for living a fully human yet spiritual life. He describes the process of individuation through a series of images: the castle (the image of wholeness), deep waters (the inner world), a map (life's journey), serpents and devils (the shadows), butterfly (the image of healing), marriage (of the inner masculine and feminine), and Christ (the symbol of the Self).
(Bk.revs.: LibJ '82/107:1470; Columbia Ag'83/63:29; Commonw '83/110:124; CrossCurr '83/33:82--3; RBksRel(C) Ap'83/11:3; Horiz '84/11:195--7; TheolStud '84/45:598--9; JAnPsy '85/30:397--8)

Growth Through Meditation and Journal Writing: A Jungian Perspective on Christian Spirituality, by Maria L. Santa Maria. New York and Ramsey, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1983p* (147 + vi, incl. 9-p. bibl).

Believing that Jung's psychology provides a unique perspective for dealing with the psychological problems of adulthood and the search for meaning, Santa Maria discusses the concept of the receptive mode as the feminine aspect of personality that is essential in the development of a mature adult spirituality. She explores the use of guided imagery, keeping a journal, and meditation in her discussions of the topics of inner life and the feminine mode; elements of contemporary Christian spirituality; classical approaches to the spiritual life; the covenant life; and seven dimensions of Christian spirituality, stressing that a search for meaning is a search for God.
(Bk.rev.: SisToday Ag-S'84/56:43; RelStudR '85/11:172)

Jung and the Bible, by Wayne Gilbert Rollins. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1983p* (153 + x, incl. 4-p. index of names and subjects, 3-p. index of Biblical ref., 2-p. bibl., 13-p. ref. notes, 2-p. chron. of Jung's life, 17 illus.).

Exploring Scripture as a treasury of soul, Rollins states his belief that the study of the soul was Jung's main goal. He first analyzes the relationship between Jung and the Bible and presents a lengthy description of Jung's psychology from a biographical point of view. Then he discusses the Bible and the life of the soul, Biblical symbols as vocabulary of the soul, and Biblical archetypes (particularly the Self in Scripture). He also examines a Jungian approach to "letting the Bible speak" and a Jungian perspective of God, the Bible, and the Self, concluding with an analysis of psychological criticism and scriptural studies.
(Bk.revs.: LibJ '82/107:2262; Commonw '83/110:665; JPsyChry Fall'83/2:86; JPsyTheol '83/11:259-61; TheolStud '83/44:722--4; JAnPsy '84/29:207--8; RelStudR '84/10:47--8; JBibLit '85/104:503--4)

Jung and the Christian Way, by Christopher Bryant. London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1983p*; Minneapolis: Seabury Press, 1984p* (127 + x, incl. 1-p. bibl.).

Basing his book on lectures given at a London church in 1980, Bryant expresses his debt to Jung for the spiritual relevance of Jung's exploration of the human psyche and the light shed on the Christian faith and way of life. He discusses various aspects of Jung's views on religion, finding Jung's understanding of dogma to be partial and inadequate, though believing that Jung can provide Christians with a deeper understanding of their faith. His topics include dreams and their interpretation; God's providence and the Self; God's providence and the stages of life; the shadow and the Redeemer; individuation and the archetypes; and individuation and the spiritual life.
(Bk.revs.: ExposTimes '83/94:348; Harvest '83/29:155; Tabl '83/237:354--5; CanCathR My'84/2:32; Theol '84/87:72-4; BksRel Ap'85/13:7; JPsyTheol '85/13:217; SpirToday '85/37:363; TheolStud '85/46:756; Horiz '86/13:109--10; JPsyChry Sum'87/6:86-8)

Jung, Hesse, Harold: The Contributions of C. G. Jung, Hermann Hesse, and Preston Harold (Author of The Shining Stranger) to a Spiritual Psychology, by Winifred Babcock. New York, Harold Institute Book/Dodd, Mead & Co., 1983 (185 + xiii, incl. 7-p. index, 2-p. bibl., 10-p. ref. notes).

Developing her own synthesis, following the "creative synthesis" by Harold of Jung's findings and Hesse's influences, Babcock attempts to bring into closer focus religion-based psychology and psychology-based religion, whose theme is the search for Self and meaning in life. Her topics include, among others, the self (the authority-ego); the shadow (mystery of good and evil); the rebirth of consciousness in this life; the paradoxical necessity both to accept and reject life in this world; becoming an artist of life (the Ten Commandments as psychic guidelines to achieve psychic health); and transcending theology and psychology.

The Structure of Biblical Myths: The Ontogenesis of the Psyche, by Heinz Westman. Dallas: Spring Publications, 1983p*; Shaftesbury: Element Books, 1984 (447 + xxii, incl. 23-p. ref. notes, 40 illus., 5-p. preface by David Miller).

Based on nearly fifty years of analytical practice, this work by Westman presents a psyche-centered interpretation of the Bible as a source of themes which reveal the ontogenesis (life history) of the psyche, the essence of the individual experience of life. In discussing this unique development of each individual, he cites religious writing from the most ancient to the contemporary, as well as manifestations in political life and modern science, with frequent reference made to the Hebraic-Christian Bible. He declares that Biblical stories not only reveal the working of the human mind, but that they provide one with the satisfaction of one's essential need to experience "consciously" a meaning for one's own life.
(Bk.revs.: Chman Oc'84/198:18; Commonw '85/112:508; ExposTimes '85/96:253; JAmAcadRel '85/53:318--19; JAnPsy '85/30:105; Quad '85/18n2:93--4; UnionSemQR '85/40n1--2:106--7; HeythJ '86/27:71; JRelPsyRes '87/10:178--80; SFJInstLib '87/7n2:23--

Buddhism and Jungian Psychology, by J. Marvin Spiegelman and Mokusen Miyuki. Phoenix: Falcon Press, 1984; 1985p* (190, incl. 20 illus.).

Stimulated by Jung's appreciation of Eastern religion and thought, analysts Spiegelman and Miyuki (who is also a Zen priest) aim to integrate Jungian psychology with Buddhism, providing insights that may integrate the "Other," and realizing the essential difficulty in the concept of the ego in Western and Eastern philosophies. They discuss East and West from the personal point of view; the Zen oxherding pictures; self-realization; and aspects of Buddhism and Jungian psychology.
(Bk.revs.: PsyPersp '86/17:259--61; JAnPsy '87/32:393--4; Harvest '88--89/34:183--4; PsyPersp '90/22:171--3)

Dreams and Spiritual Growth: A Christian Approach to Dreamwork, by Louis M. Savary, Patricia H. Berne, and Strephon Kaplan-Williams. New York and Ramsey, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1984p* (241, incl. 3-p. bibl).

Applying the insights and research of depth psychology to the Judaeo-Christian dreamwork tradition, Savary, Berne, and Kaplan-Williams present a method for using dreams to connect a person to God, one's self, and the believing community. They offer more than thirty-five dreamwork tools and techniques, as well as a selected list of important Biblical dreams and visions. The section entitled "Relating to God" includes the topics of God's guidance through dreams; the continuing revelation; the disrepute of dreamwork in the Church; the rediscovery of dreamwork among contemporary Christians; and dreamwork and prayer. The section on relating to one's self includes the topics of welcoming the dream's perspective as a personal journey; dream-work as destiny; dreamwork and the personality; and dreamwork as healing. In the section on the Christian community, they discuss dreams and the Holy Spirit; the spiritual director's perspective; the therapist's perspective; dreams and prophecy; and a theology of dreams and dreamwork.
(Bk.revs.: SisToday '84/56:246; CalvTheolJ '85/20:157--9; SpirToday '85/37:175; ChrScholR '86/15:77--8; TrinSemR '86/8:107; AsbSem '87/42:91--2)

Fritz Kunkel: Selected Writings, edited, with an introduction and commentary, by John A. Sanford. New York and Ramsey, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1984p* (410 + x, incl. 7-p. index, 5-p. bibl., 11 diagrams).

Concerned with illustrating the relevance of Kunkel's thought for today, Sanford bases his presentation on two of Kunkel's twenty books and compares Jung's theories to those of Kunkel, who perceived God's power working in his patients, himself, and the world situation. Sanford presents Kunkel's main thesis (from In Search of Maturity] that one lives either a creative life from the Self or a constricted life from the egocentric ego. He follows this with Kunkel's idea on the origin and nature of egocentricity (from How Character Develops). He then describes from parts of both books Kunkel's analysis of how one can find one's way creatively through the crisis when egocentric life patterns no longer work (including the shadow and negative life, self-education, idolatry, conscious growth, and practical aids). Sanford concludes with his own essay on Kunkel's work and on contemporary issues in psychology and religion (88 pp.).
(Bk.revs.: JPsyTheol '84/12:326-7; LibJ '84/109:497; CalvTheolJ '85/20:170--1; JAnPsy '85/30:217--19; JPastorCare'85/39:186--8; PsyPersp'85/16:233--5; RelStudR'85/11:383; TheolToday '85/42:150; LumenVitae '86/41:464; JPsyTheol '87/15:360)

The Illness That We Are: A Jungian Critique of Christianity, by John P. Dourley. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1984p* (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 17) (121, incl. 5-p. index, 16-p. ref. notes, 5 illus.).

Dourley focuses on the need for the recovery of a revitalized Christian spirituality and theology. He cites Jung's appreciation of the psychospiritual potentialities inherent in the Christian myth, qualified by a perception of its shortcomings, and proceeds to examine that qualified perception in Jung's ambivalence toward Christianity. He explores "how the West was lost," surveying Jung's analysis of Western spiritual development from church fathers to the Middle Ages; scholasticism, mysticism and the alchemical tradition; Kant, Hegel and modern theology; and theopathology and Chris-topathology. He also discusses the topic of mandalic ("image of radical divine immanence in the individual psyche") versus holocaustic faith, ending with interpretations of pastoral psychology and the psychology of pastors, and of the Gnostic Christian and "Jung's call for a return to the Gnostic sense of God as an inner, directing presence."
(Bk.revs.: CanBkRAn '84:122; Choice '85/22:831; JAnPsy '85/30:329--31; JPsyTheol '85/ 13:217; RelStudR '85/11:40--1; StudRel '85/14:510--12; Epiph '86/6:82--90; TorJTheol '86/2:142--4; SFJInstLib '87/7n3:35--7)

Prayer and Temperament: Different Prayer Forms for Different Personality Types, by Chester P. Michael and Marie C. Norissey. Charlottesville, Va.: The Open Door, 1984p* (190, incl. 3-p. bibl., 6-p. gloss.).

Following a survey of the development of the theory of temperament, Michael and Norissey analyze how temperament has affected Christian spirituality and then proceed to interpret the relationships of prayer and spirituality with different personality types. They describe prayer forms as Benedictine, Ignatian, Augustinian, Franciscan, and Thomistic; and they explore the subject of using one's personal shadow and one's inferior function in prayer and consider the relationship of temperament to liturgical prayer. Included are prayer suggestions for each of the sixteen psychological types developed by Isabel Briggs Myers from Jung's original system.

The Voice Within: Love and Virtue in the Age of the Spirit, by Helen M. Luke. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1984p (118 + x, incl. 3-p. bibl. notes).

Consisting of essays and reflections written over twenty years or more, Luke's book expresses some of the thoughts and images that have come from within (or from the unconscious, in Jung's terminology) and relates them to the outer voices in the world. She urges careful discrimination among the voices from within in order to distinguish the voice that comes from the ground of one's being. She first discusses the subjects of vow and doctrine in the New Age (the Spirit and the law; the marriage vow; religious vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience; and the mystery within). She then focuses on the subject of the subtitle, discussing courtesy and an interior hierarchy of values; the king and the principles of the heart; the joy of the fool; exchange as the way of conscious love; inner relationship and community in the I Ching; pride; suffering; and the Lord's prayer.
(Bk.revs.: Amer '85/152:417; Parab My'85/10:100--104)

Essays on Jung and the Study of Religion, edited by Luther H. Martin and James Goss. Lanham, Md., New York, and London: University Press of America, 1985 +p(205pp.).
Consisting of papers delivered between 1979 and 1981 at the annual meetings of the American Academy of Religion's consultation on Jungian psychology and the study of religion, this collection edited by Martin and Goss contains twelve essays, including two by Martin (on Jung as a Gnostic and Jung and the history of religion) and one by Goss (on eschatology, autonomy, and individuation). Essays by Jungian analysts include a study on differences between Jung and Hillman (James Hall); a Jungian approach to the Jodoshinshu concept of the "wicked" (Mokusen Miyuki), and an essay on Jung and the study of religion (Ann Belford Ulanov). Other essays are on Ireland, land of eternal youth (Mary Brenneman and Walter Brenneman); Jung as a Christian or post-Christian psychologist (Peter Homans); the descent to the underworld in Jung and Hillman (David Miller); the anima in religious studies (Thomas Moore); Jung and the phenomenology of religion (William Paden); and Jung on scripture and hermeneutics (Wayne Rollins).
(Bk.revs.: JSciStudRel '86/25:525--6; RelStudR '86/12:134; JAnPsy '87/32:298--300; JRel '88/68:184--5)

Jung and Eastern Thought, by Harold G. Coward. Albany: State U. of New York Press, 1985* +p* (SUNY Series in Transpersonal and Humanistic Psychology) (218 + xv, incl. 4-p. index, 22-p. annotated bibl., 5-p. intro. by Joseph L. Henderson).

Seeking to assess the overall impact of Eastern thought on Jung's life and ideas, Coward examines the influences that Jung found useful and those he drew back from. He discusses Jung's encounter with yoga and the point at which Jung drew the line in his acceptance of yoga; and he includes an analysis of Jung's criticism of yoga spirituality by John Borelli. The second half of the book deals with conceptual comparisons of Jung and Indian thought, which consists of essays by Coward on Jung and karma and kundalini, and on mysticism in the psychology of Jung and the yoga of Patanjali. This is followed by essays by J. F. T. Jordens on a comparison of Jung's concepts of the collective unconscious and spirit (Self) with key concepts of prakriti (potential matter) and purusha (spirit) of Patanjali, and on a comparison of the concepts of libido and consciousness with prana (life breath) and prajna (supreme knowledge, or wisdom). Also included is an annotated bibliography by Borelli on C. G. Jung and Eastern religious traditions.
(Bk.revs.: Choice '85/23:589; JAmAcadRel '86/54:573--4; JTranspPsy '86/18:84--5; RelStudR '86/12:43; StudRel '86/15:251--3; BkRDig '87:396; JAnPsy '87/32:300--1; JPsyChrySum'87/6:86--8)

Jung's Treatment of Christianity: The Psychotherapy of a Religious Tradition, by Murray Stein. Wilmette, 111.: Chiron Publications, 1985*; 1986p* (208 + vii, incl. 8-p. index, 5-p. bibl.).

Stein examines Jung's writings on Christianity from the point of view of a psychotherapeutic relationship. He looks at Jung's personal life and psychological thought, particularly in the last twenty years of Jung's active intellectual life, and his strong urge to heal Christianity. Beginning with an interpretation of Jung as an empirical scientist, hermeneutical revitalist, doctor of souls, and modern man, Stein presents Jung's method of psychotherapeutic treatment (including anamnesis and reconstruction, the role of interpretation, and transference/countertransference process). He analyzes Jung's interpretation of Christianity's God symbol, the mass, Christian history and its repressions and central symbols, and the countertransference of Answer to Job. He concludes with the therapist's vision of Christianity's future wholeness.
(Bk.revs.: RelHum '85/19:500; ChrCen '86/103:148--9; JAnPsy '86/31:183--4; TheolStud '86/47:355--6; JRel '87/67:597-8; PsyanQ '87/86:697--9; JPsyChry Spr'88/7:92--3; Zygon Jn'88/23:209; ContemPsy '89/34:99)

Mid-Life Directions: Praying and Playing, Sources of New Dynamism, by Anne Brennan and Janice Brewi. New York and Ramsey, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1985p* (186 + vi, incl. 16-p. bibl.).

In their midlife workshops, seminars, and retreats, Brennan and Brewi combine Jung's psychological perspective with the meaning of Christian spiritual tradition. Citing the Christian spiritual concept of "change and become like little children," they relate play to the individuation process and to personal spirituality. They present individuation as a life goal and discuss the unconscious and the shadow in Jung's theory of the personality and then relate the unconscious and the shadow to prayer in the second half of life.
(Bk.revs.: SisToday N'85/57:178; Amer '86/155:126--7; HumDev Spr'86/7:46; LivLight '86/22:183; StAnth '86/93:50; SpirLife '86/32:52--3)

Chaos or Creation: Spirituality in Mid-life, by L. Patrick Carroll and Katherine Marie Dyckman. New York and Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1986p* (169 + iv, incl. 8-p. bibl.).
Directing their book to religious people searching in the middle of their lives for meaning, Carroll and Dyckman see the religious and psychological journeys as a single path. Using Jung's point of view as the overarching model of the midlife challenge, they discuss Erik Erikson's developmental theory, cautions by Carol Gilligan, Sanford's and Kunkel's analyses of egocentricity, and Daniel Levinson's adaptations for men and women. They describe the midlife crisis as a religious experience, referring especially to James Fowler's stages of faith, and the "pieces of brokenness" (burnout, depression, loneliness, intimacy, and sexuality) one can feel in a heightened way at that time. They conclude with a discussion of prayer at midlife and sharing one's brokenness with a meditation on Jesus and the cross.
(Bk.revs.: LibJ 10c'86/111:1026; Church '87/3:56; JPsyChry Fall'87/6:74--5; Marriage Oc'87/69:24; SisToday '87/58:621; SpirLife '87/33:119; RforRel '88/47:150--1)

Christianity as Psychology: The Healing Power of the Christian Message, by Morton T. Kelsey. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1986p* (143, incl. 5-p. index, 5-p. bibl., 6-p. ref. notes, 4 illus.).

Believing that a fully lived Christian "drama" is a profound psychological as well as religious experience, Kelsey argues that Christian psychology can deal with emotional problems such as feelings of meaninglessness and low-grade depression. He believes there is a place for God in psychology and examines the healing emphasis in the Christian tradition, looking at the major schools of psychological thought (and giving special attention to Jung) to see how different they are in their ideas about human beings and the ways to treat them. He concludes by pointing out the implications of Christian life, practice, and belief for psychologists.
(Bk.revs.: JPsyTheol '87/15:82; Lumen Vitae '87/42:457; LuthTheolJ '87/21:101-2; RelStudR '87/13:148; StLukeJTh '87/30:287--8; JPastorCare '88/42:65--6; ReformR '88/ 42:65--6)

Jung's Psychology and Tibetan Buddhism: Western and Eastern Paths to the Heart, by Radmila Moacanin. London: Wisdom Publications, 1986p* (128 + xi, incl. 7-p. index, 11-p. ref. notes, 3 illus., 3-p. gloss, of Buddhist and Jungian terms).

Gently urged by the Tibetan Buddhist master Lama Thubten Yeshe to give a talk on Jung's psychology and its relation to Tibetan Buddhism, Moacanin pursued her interest to learn and experience more of the two traditions, and this book is the result. With the purpose of making a bridge between some aspects of Eastern and Western thought, particularly their philosophical and spiritual traditions and their psychological and ethical systems, she presents similarities and differences between Jung's psychology and Tantric Buddhism that are most directly concerned with the process of growth of consciousness and spiritual transformation, issues that preoccupied Jung throughout his life. Among other topics she examines the union of opposites; the middle way and the Madhanamika philosophy; ego and non-ego; suffering and methods of healing; the redemption of God; Jung's views of Eastern traditions; and ethical issues.
(Bk.rev.: Harvest '88-89/34:183--4)

The Mind of the Bible-Believer, by Edmund D. Cohen. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1986*; 1988p* (423 + v, incl. 15-p. indexes).

Drawing upon his experience of teaching advanced courses in social psychology, theories of personality, and the history of psychology, Cohen presents his major thesis that the Bible is a psychological document whose claimed didactic content (so long and so bitterly debated) is incidental to the document's psychological purpose. His contention that the Bible is a most successful manipulation leads to a sorting out of the psychological understanding that went into its making, revealing his concern about Evangelical mind-control. He explores the topics of psychological premises and brainwashing; Freud; Jung; the Bible view of human nature; the Evangelical mind-control system; mental-health implications; religion in politics; scapegoating; and the end of the world.
(Bk.revs.: Choice '87/24:1085; JPsyChr Sum'87/6:93; JPsyTheol '88/16:388--9)

No Other Light: Points of Convergence in Psychology and Spirituality, by Mary Wolff-Salin. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1986; 1989p* (234 + xi, incl. 16-p. ref. notes, 3-p. foreword by Sebastian Moore, O.S.B.).

In reflecting on the convergence of the disciplines of depth psychology and spirituality, Wolff-Salin speaks much more, though not exclusively, of the West than of the East, more of Christianity than of other faiths, and more of Jung than of Freud. She states that perhaps psychology (notably, though not exclusively, that of Jung) can reveal to the Judeo-Christian world the other half of its psyche or soul. She discusses the beginning of spiritual life and psychological growth; the structure of the human psyche; shadow; conflict; persona, ego, and self; faces of the animus and anima; solitude, discretion, and virtue; projection; the objectivity of the psyche; listening, silence, and obedience; spiritual guides and therapists; memory; peace; and the sacred marriage. Appended is an article on Benedictine humility in the light of Jungian thought and an essay on reflections on Jung's Answer to Job.
(Bk.revs.: Choice '86/24:644; LibJ '86/111:124; BkRDig '87:2021; TheolStud '87/48:796--7)

Picturing God, by Ann Belford Ulanov. Cambridge, Mass.: Cowley Publications, 1986p* (198, incl. 14-p. ref. notes).

Convinced that the worlds of depth psychology and religion lie close together and "must endlessly seek to learn from each other," Ulanov presents these essays that reflect a bridge between the unknown territories of the self and the unknowable provinces of God. She emphasizes that one's inability to cross over the gap between one's images of God and God's reality is met by the miracle of God crossing over to one's self. The twelve essays, written between 1974 and 1985, deal with the topics of the Christian fear of the psyche; ministry of the mentally ill; the two strangers (outer and inner life); need, wishes, and transcendence; aging; dreams and the paradoxes of the spirit; prayer; religious experience in pastoral counseling; the disguises of the good; the psychological reality of the demonic; heaven and hell; and picturing God.
(Bk.revs.: AnglTheolR '87/69:311--13; Quad '88/21n1:89--91; CrossCurr '89/39:114)

St. John of the Cross and Dr. C. G. Jung: Christian Mysticism in the Light of Jungian Psychology, by James Arraj. Chiloquin, Ore.: Tools for Inner Growth, 1986p* (199, incl. 3-p. index, 10-p. bibl., 9-p. ref. notes).

Arraj explores the challenges of theological misgivings about the compatibility of Jung's psychology with Christian belief, the misinterpretation of St. John's doctrine of contemplation, and the need to clarify the relationship between contemplation and Jung's process of individuation. Following an analysis of the relationship between Jung's psychology and Christian faith, he discusses the dawn of contemplation (St. John's sixteenth-century revolution of mystical consciousness as the transition from meditation to infused contemplation) and then throws a "psychological light" on John of the Cross and the life of prayer (a typological portrait of St. John; psychic energy and contemplation; and beginners and contemplatives).
(Bk.rev.: Choice '87/24:156)

Three faces of God: Traces of the Trinity in Literature and Life, by David Miller. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986p* (164 + x, incl, 6-p. index, 24-p. ref. notes, 13 illus.).

In his concern to recover the peculiar power of traditional religious images, Miller presents a "re-visioning" of a trinitarian theology of today that requires religion to relearn its own sacred truths from secular culture. He first explores the recovery of images which lie dormant in the theological ideas of the Trinity and the discovery of the likenesses of such images to psychological, everyday life, discussing the Trinity in terms of modern depth psychology (Freud and Jung). He then "presses" the trinitarian image backward and downward into the depths of mythic imagination, "contemplating" the trinity in ancient myth; neoplatonic, Gnostic, and alchemical theologies; and in contemporary philosophy and letters. He concludes by examining "loving by triangulation," noting the existence of images of the trinitarian idea in modern secular literature.
(Bk.revs.: BksRel S'86/14:9--10; ChrCen '86/103:817--18; AnglTheolR '87/69:197--8; JAmAcadRel '87/55:407--8; RelStudR '87/13:159; JRel '88/68:124--5; RelStudR '88/ 14:543; BkRDig'88:1179--80)

Hinduism and Jungian Psychology, by J. Marvin Spiegelman and Arwind U. Vasavada. Phoenix: Falcon Press, 1987p* (207 + vii, incl. 13 illus.).

In this collection, each author provides a perspective on India and Jungian psychology from a personal point of view. Spiegelman's contributions consist of a 40-page commentary on kundalini yoga (using his own views as well as Jung's) and a fictional tale of kundalini ("Maya, the Yogini," taken from his book The Tree). Contributions by Vasavada consist of nine short essays (the yogic basis of psychoanalysis; a comparison of the process of individuation and of self-realization; alchemy and catatonic depression; a reflection on Jung's autobiography; the philosophical roots of the psychoth-erapies of the West; the unconscious and the myth of the Divine Mother; Dr. Jung: a psychologist or a guru?; fee-less practice and "soul work"; and meeting Jung) followed by a two-page letter from Jung to Vasavada.

Jung's Challenge to Contemporary Religion, edited by Murray Stein and Robert Moore. Wilmette, 111.: Chiron Publications, 1987p* (190 + vi, incl. end-chapter ref. notes).
Stein and Moore present eleven papers from a 1985 conference sponsored by the Jung Institute of Chicago. Papers by Jungian analysts are on Jung's green Christ vision as a healing symbol for Christianity (Stein); ritual process, initiation, and contemporary religion (Moore); patriarchy in transformation from Judaic, Christian, and clinical perspectives (Nathan Schwartz-Salant); Jung's Gnosticism and contemporary gnosis (June Singer); and Jung and the archetype of death and rebirth (David Dalrymple). Other contributions are on the church as crucible for transformation (William Dols); Jung's critique of the Christian notions of good and evil (Carrin Dunne); the female self in the image of God (Joan Engelsman); womansoul as a feminine correction to Christian imagery (Julia Jewett); the anti-Chris-tianism of depth psychology (David Miller); and Jung's challenge to Biblical hermenutics (Wayne Rollins).

Love, Celibacy and the Inner Marriage, by John P. Dourley. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1987p* (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 29) (122, incl. 4-p. index, 13-p. ref. notes, 2 illus.).

Dourley takes the title of this book from the second essay on Jung and Mechthilde of Magdeburg, a medieval mystic who exemplifies the inner marriage of the ego and the inner contrasexual element. Preceding that essay he examines Jung and the coincidence of opposites in God, the universe, and the individual. His other topics include an examination of Jung's understanding of mysticism from psychological, theological, and philosophical perspectives; Jung and Tillich reconsidered and the correlation of psychic with religious experience; Jung's impact on theology and religious studies; and Jung's thoughts on the religious nature of the psyche.
(Bk.revs.: Harvest '88-89/34:180--2; PsyPersp '88/19:350--3)

The Strange Trial of Mr. Hyde: A New Look at the Nature of Human Evil, by John A. Sanford. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1987* (182, incl. 4-p. subject index, 1-p. Scripture index).

In presenting a new look at the nature of human evil, Sanford employs a fantasy of a court trial, with fictional characters of his own invention, to see that justice is done to Edward Hyde, who is charged with being evil. The scenario involves the testimony of a panel of experts in human affairs and behavior from the viewpoints of Jungian psychology, Christianity, the average person, and feminism. This is followed by Sanford's commentary on the trial, in which he goes into the psychological and philosophical background on the origin of evil and Jung's views of the problem of evil, with contrasting views by Kunkel and others, including "why the shadow isn't the devil." Sanford's definition of evil as whatever opposes the creative goals and energies of the Self places it as a part of the archetype of choice. Appended is a 16-page synopsis of Stevenson's story, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, taken from Sanford's 1981 book on evil.
(Bk.revs.:JPsyTheol '87/15:360--3; KirkR '87/55:361; PsyPesp '88/19:161--4; Quad '88/ 21n1:91--3; RefResBkN Ap'88/3:2)

WomanChrist: A New Vision of Feminist Spirituality, by Christin Lore Weber. San Francisco: Perennial Library/Harper & Row, 1987p* (178 + xi, incl. 3-p. ref. notes).

In attemtping to "re-vision" and reconstruct a Christian spirituality of women's mysteries and to wed Christian archetypes with other natural energies constellated in her psychic depths, Weber records her own spiritual searching for connections which she characterizes as "Christ in woman and woman in Christ." Her journey involves an idyllic and contemplative childhood with love for the mystery of nature, the intricacies of a theological education, the intimacy of marriage, encounters as a spiritual director and pastoral counselor, and the "sacred metamorphosis" of widowhood. She characterizes her experience as womanbody, womansoul, womanpower, and womanwisdom.
(Bk.revs.: Bklist '87/84:348; Horiz '88/15:419--20)

Body Metaphors: Releasing God-Feminine in Us All, by Genia Pauli Haddon. N.Y.: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1988* (250 + xvii, incl. 10-p. index, 19-p. ref. notes, 49 illus,).

Taking the theme of a new image of God-Feminine (differentiating it from the term "Goddess" in order to emphasize its immediate roots within the God-religion of the Christian or Jewish faith), Haddon proposes a new paradigm of masculinity and femininity that discredits stereotypical role definitions by regrounding in body differences. She agrees with Jung's sensitive respect for the spiritual dimension of human experience and attitude toward the psyche, but she differs from his definitions of masculinity and femininity in the places where the message from the body differs. She designates God-masculine and God-feminine as naming the single God from different perspectives, considering the absolute Deity as mysterious and unknowable.
(Bk.revs.: Bklist '88/84:1204; LibJ IMr '88/113:71)

Carl Jung and Christian Spirituality, edited by Robert L. Moore. New York and Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1988p* (Jungian Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Spirituality, vol. 1) (252 + xii, incl. end-chapter ref. notes).

Moore offers a collection of twelve essays by various authors to support the growing interest in the implications of Jungian psychology for the theory and practice of spirituality and spiritual direction. Consisting mainly of articles published originally in journals, they include four by Jungian analysts: the cross as an archetypal symbol (M. Esther Harding); the Self as other (Ann Ulanov); problem of evil in Christianity and analytical psychology (John Sanford); and persona and shadow: a Jungian view of human duality (Thayer Greene). Other selections are on Jungian psychology and religious experience (Eugene Bianchi); Jungian types and forms of prayer (Thomas Clarke); Jungian psychology and Christian spirituality (Robert Doran); rediscovering the priesthood through the unconscious (Morton Kelsey); Jung and scripture (Diarmuid McGann); Jungian typology and Christian spirituality (Robert Repicky); psychologically living symbolism and liturgy (Ernest Skublics); and the archetypes as a new way of holiness (Patrick Vander-meersch).
(Bk.revs.: Choice '88/26:662; LibJ 1Ap'88/113:91; BkRDig S'89:32)

Catholicism and Jungian Psychology, edited by J. Marvin Spiegelman. Phoenix: Falcon Press, 1988p* (270, incl. end-chapter ref. notes).

Of the twenty-one essays collected here, nine are written by Jungian analysts. These include essays on Jungian psychology and Catholicism in our nuclear age (Gerd Max Cryns); Jung and Catholicism (John Dourley); the treatment of Catholic patients (Vera von der Heydt); on being Catholic and being Jungian (Russell Holmes); Hermes: a guide to the role of priest (Thomas Lavin); Catholicism and Jungian psychology (Terence McBride); Jung and Catholicism (Roger Radloff); a new constellation of the feminine (Mokusen Miyuki); and psychotherapists and the clergy (Spiegelman).
(Bk.rev.: Harvest '89--90/35:234--6)

Celebrate Mid-Life: Jungian Archetypes and Mid-Life Spirituality, by Janice Brewi and Anne Brennan. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1988*; 1989p* (296 + xii, incl. 30-p. bibl.).

Taking as a major thesis Jung's archetypal perspective on human development and focusing on midlife experiences taken from their numerous workshops and retreats, Brewi and Brennan celebrate midlife experience as an essential gift of the human journey. They discuss four archetypal experiences, namely, midlife itself (unconscious elements of the human psyche; Jesus and the archetypes; midlife spirituality; reflective exercises); the shadow (as archetypal friend or foe; owning one's shadow; integrating shadow manifestations; Jesus and the shadow and new life); the inner child (dreams and transformation; healing the inner child; child and persona); and emerging wisdom.
(Bk.revs.: LibJ lAp'88/113:90; SpirLife '88/34:186; StAnth Jy'88/96:50; SisToday A-S'88/60:50)

The Dove in the Stone: Finding the Sacred in the Commonplace, by Alice O. Howell. Wheaton, 111., Madras, and London: Quest Books/Theosophical Publishing House, 1988p* (199 + xiv, incl. 5-p. bibl., 25 illus., 4-p. intro. by Christopher Bamford).
Returning to the "tiny, precious" island of lona in the Hebrides for the eleventh time, Howell savors the sacred Celtic isle with reminiscences of her past and the joys of the present. She believes that there is an "inner beauty in each of us hungering to be matched in outer experience." She integrates her account of exploring the rocky island with symbolic musings of life's meanings in which she interprets symbology of stones, trees, crosses, wands, serpents, and flowers. Among her symbolic meanings are the Philosopher's Stone (represented in the small, black, pyramidal stone which she found and retained from the first visit), the Tree of Life, Celtic crosses, a magic wand to awaken, the wise serpent, the lotus in the East and the rose in the West as feminine symbols, and the dove as the connection between Holy Wisdom (Sophia) and the Holy Ghost. Illustrated throughout with legends, mythology, poetry, and HowelPs own insights as a Jungian astrologer and teacher, the book focuses on divine, universal Sophia ("hidden in symbols of stone, representing manifest earth, and the serpents of the spinal energy, and the dove pointing to the wings of higher consciousness, a consciousness uniting opposites").

The Gentle Art of Spiritual Guidance, by John R. Yungblut. Amity, N.Y.: Amity House, 1988p* (148 + xi, incl. 2-p. ref. notes).

Addressing himself primarily to the individual with an interest in the vocation of spiritual guidance as well as to the seeker on the inward journey to the self, Yungblut interprets spiritual guidance as the art of discerning "that of God" in another and helping that person be true to the divine spark. He takes into account Jung's ideas of the psyche, and the vision of continuing creation through evolution as discerned by Teilhard de Chardin. Within the context of Christ-consciousness, individuation, and wholeness, he discusses the relationship between sexuality and spirituality, distinctions between contemporary psychotherapy and spiritual guidance, cultivating the gift for spiritual guidance, disciplines of devotion for the spiritual guide, the dynamics of the counseling session, and John the Apostle as spiritual guide par excellence.

Jung and the Quaker Way, by Jack H. Wallis. London: Quaker Home Service, 1988p* (216, incl. 4-p. general index, 3-p. index to Jung quotations, 4-p. bibl., 9-p. ref. notes).

Concerned with aspects of Jung's work and teaching that are most relevant to Quaker faith and practice as well as the relevance of Quaker faith and practice for depth psychology, Wallis expresses the conviction that they can illuminate and enrich each other by their similarities and their differences. He begins by saying that Quaker thought and worship and Jung's teachings converge at a time of religious uncertainty, spiritual exploration, and mistrust of authority; and he follows with discussions on such topics as faith and doubt; perfection and growth toward wholeness; balance and stability; images of God and Jesus; personality and persona; and maleness and femaleness. He ends with an analysis of the Quaker response to Jung's ideas on harmonizing pairs of opposites, the tension between personal vocation and the collective unconscious, and symbols of transcendence.
(Bk.rev.: FriendsJ N'88/34:42--3)

Jung's Three Theories of Religious Experience, by J. Harley Chapman. Lewiston, N.Y. and Queenstown, Ontario: Edwin Mellen Press, 1988* (Studies in the Psychology of Religion, vol. 3) (178 + ix, incl. 11-p. index, 7-p. bibl., end-chapter ref. notes).

In explaining rather than interpreting the pervasive and important human phenomenon of religious experience, Chapman explores Jung's ideas and claims that Jung has not one but three different but related theories, none of which he ever explicitly or completely spelled out. Jointly taking into consideration varying explanatory intent, shifts in the meaning of key terms, and the employment of different models, he presents the three theories as scientific-psychological, phenomenological-mythological, and metaphysical-theological. He characterizes the models of the human psyche as a "stream" of vital energy (libido), a "quest" for wholeness, and a "creature" or "splinter" of the infinite deity.
(Bk.rev.: Choice '89/26:1534 + )

Lady of the Beasts: Ancient Images of the Goddess and Her Sacred Animals, by Buffie Johnson. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1988*; 1990p (386 + xii, incl. 7-p. index, 6-p. bibl., 12-p. ref. notes, 385 illus.).

Johnson's aim is to recapture a nonverbal manner of comprehending the world through the imagery of the Great Goddess, abundantly illustrated in this volume. Although archetypal images may be "translated" into words, they are understood only in the deep recesses of the psyche. She associates the Great Mother with animal archetypes, symbols of fertility and death from prehistory, which define her nature and exemplify her power, acting in myths as they do in fairy tales and dreams as guides and soul carriers. Relying on symbolism and the connections drawn between one idea or object and another, she presents thirteen sacred animals (symbolizing death and rebirth in matrifocal cultures), namely, bird, lion, dog, serpent, butterfly, ewe and ram, spider, deer, fish, pig, cow and bull, scorpion, and bear.
(Bk.revs.: NewDirWom Jy'89/18:21; NYTimesBkR 5F89/94:22)

The Wisdom of the Psyche, by Ann Belford Ulanov. Cambridge, Mass.: Cowley Publications, 1988p* (144, incl. 36-p. end-chapter ref. notes).

Consisting of four lectures given in 1985 at the Protestant Episcopal Seminary in Alexandria, Virginia, Ulanov's book addresses the ministry of the ego, the "Devil's trick," women's wiles, and the wisdom of the psyche. She interprets the ministry of the ego as the responsibility to house what one has been given to be and to give it back to the giver, to be the portal for the larger self coming into the world. She pictures the Devil's trick as capturing one in the gap between what one yearns toward as the ideal (image of God) and what actually confronts one as reality, admitting the evil that belongs to one's self and claiming the good that is given. She presents the wiliness of women as prudent, practical wisdom that builds up the good and seeks connections, and she concludes with an examination of how and where the psyche establishes its place in the religious scheme of things.
(Bk.revs.: Bklist '88/85:103; LibJ 1S'88/113:175; Amer '89/160:403--4; ExposTimes '89/ 100:397--8; Quad '89/22n2:118--19 + 121; '90/23n1:119-121; RelIntell '89/6:243--5)

Behold Woman: A Jungian Approach to Feminist Theology, by Carrin Dunne. Wilmette, 111.: Chiron Publications, 1989p* (Chiron Monograph Series, vol. II) (97 + xv, incl. 7-p. index, 5-p. ref. notes, 6 illus.).

Beginning with her own image of "woman," which came in a dream while she was pondering a response to Jung's critique of the Christian notions of good and evil for a Jungian conference, Dunne amplifies the archetypal dream image in her effort to distinguish between woman as idea and real women, between woman's soul and woman as soul, and between the heavenly woman (the feminine aspect of God) and the earthly woman (her fallenness). The first, and longest, chapter is on whether women have souls, in which she discusses five approaches to an image of wounding ("original sin"). Chapter 2 deals with Jung's theory of the contrasexual character of the psyche, while the following chapter focuses on the struggle between male and female religion from the point of view of the soul. Her interpretations involve the legends of Innana and Gilgamesh, Lilith and Adam, Semele and Zeus, Psyche and Eros, and Beauty and Beast, among others.

A Blue Fire: Selected Writings, by James Hillman; introduced and edited by Thomas Moore in collaboration with James Hillman. New York: Harper & Row, 1989* (323 + x, incl. 9-p. index, 8-p. bibl., 11-p. prologue by Thomas Moore).

Consisting of excerpts from fifteen books and pamphlets and forty-one articles by Hillman, this collection is arranged in three parts: Soul, World, and Eros. The topics include the poetic basis of mind; many gods, many persons; imaginal practice: greeting the angel; therapy: fictions and epiphanies; anima mundi; the salt of soul, the sulfur of spirit; pathologizing: the wound and the eye; psychoanalysis in the street; mythology as family; dreams and the blood soul; love's torturous enchantments; and the divine face of things. Moore introduces each of the chapters with brief commentary. He discusses in the prologue Hillman's significance as an "artist of psychology" who challenges one all along the way to rethink, to "re-vision," and to reimagine. The largest number of excerpts are from Hillman's Re-Visioning Psychology (1975).
(Bkrevs.: Bklist '89/86:118; LibJ 1Oc'89/114:109; PubW28Jy'89/236:213)

God Is a Trauma: Vicarious Religion and Soul-Making, by Greg Mogenson. Dallas: Spring Publications, 1989p* (167 + vii, incl. 9-p. ref. notes).

Focusing on the religious dimension of the psychology of traumatic events, Mogenson, like Jung, refers to God as the God-image or God-complex that stirs within the soul, rather than to theology's soul-transcending God. He distinguishes between the traumatized soul which seeks solace through conversion, giving itself over to spirit and ceasing to be psychological, and the traumatized soul that mediates itself by making differences between itself and everything that happens. He defines therapy of the psyche as the doctoring of the soul's capacity to make differences between itself and matter and between itself and spirit, since soul is the realm between matter and spirit. In pursuing the theme of the impact on the soul of monotheistic theology's "no-name God," he states that psychotherapy heals the soul by insisting that it experience its afflictions within the dimensions of the images in which the afflictions reside.

Hells and Holy Ghosts: A Theopoetics of Christian Belief, by David L. Miller. Nashville, Tenn.: Abingdon Press, 1989p* (224, incl. 4-p. index of historical and mythological names, 26-p. ref. notes).

Miller reflects on Christian beliefs in the descent of Christ into Hell and resurrection of the dead, and particularly on the use of the term "ghost" to refer both to divinity (Holy Ghost) and to the motif of life after death. He makes his own "descent" into the underworld of Christianity's creedal beliefs and observes "modern resurrections of the dead" in literature and life.

Following an introduction on "not giving up the ghost," he discusses descents into history and imagination; laughter; archetypal sadomasochism; the hells of modern literature; holy ghosts; the death of ghosts; ghosts in language; ghosts of folklore; ghosts of Scripture; ghosts of depth psychology; and ghosts of modern literature.

Jung and the Lost Gospels: Insights into the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Nag Hammadi Library, by Stephan A. Hoeller. Wheaton, 111.: Quest Books/ Theosophical Publishing House, 1989* +p* (268 + xix, incl. 14-p. index, 8-p. ref. notes, 10 illus., 7-p. foreword by June Singer).

Calling Jung the greatest of modern Gnostics, Hoeller endeavors to elucidate the Lost Gospels in psychological terms, remarking that they are books about Gnosis, that is, about the true individuation of the human psyche. His evaluation of certain aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls of Qumran has led to the view that Jewish Essenes and Christian Gnostics were exponents of the same stream of spirituality and that the discovery of their long-lost scriptures portends well for the revival of a similar spirituality today. Following a prologue on the loss and recovery of Western psychological spirituality, he discusses the "other tradition," including the people of the scrolls, the Essene Messiah and the Gnostic Christ, feminine wisdom, and the odyssey of Gnosis; after which he interprets the myths of Gnosticism and analyzes the "other gospels": the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Philip, the Gospel of Truth, and the Gospel of the Egyptians).
(Bk.rev.: WCoastRBks '89/15:30)

Archetypal Process: Self and Divine in Whitehead, Jung, and Hillman, edited by David Ray Griffin. Evanston, 111.: Northwestern U. Press, 1989* +p* (290 + x, incl. 6-p. index, 16-p. ref. notes).

These essays, from a conference held at Claremont University in 1983, focus on bringing process theology into dialogue with the work of Jung and James Hillman, who has introduced modifications into Jung's thought. Following Griffin's introduction on archetypal psychology and process philosophy as complementary "postmodern" movements are five essays with accompanying responses, replies to responses, and Hillman's post-conference responses to the papers. Other than Hillman's own essay entitled "Back to Beyond: On Cosmology," the only other Jungian contribution is Robert Moore's response to "Psychocosmetics and the Underworld Connection" by Catherine Keller. Two other authors, whose work appears in this annotated bibliography, are James Heisig (who writes on the mystique of the nonra-tional) and Gerald Slusser (on Jung and Whitehead and the necessity of symbol and myth). Griffin concludes with an essay on a metaphysical psychology to "un-Locke" our ailing world.

C. G. Jung's Psychology of Religion and Synchronicity, by Robert Aziz. Albany: State U. of New York Press, 1990 +p (Transpersonal and Humanistic Psychology Series) (269 + ix, incl. 7-p. index, 10-p. bibl., 29-p. ref. notes).

In exploring the significant role that synchronistic phenomena played in the life and work of Jung, Aziz presents considerable case material in terms of Jung's psychology of religion and his concept of individuation. He first discusses Jung's psychology of religion in relation to his intrapsychic model. This is followed by a systematic study of synchronistic experiences and an analysis of the psyche as microcosm, in which he examines the development of Freud's thinking on telepathy and points of conflict and agreement between Freud and Jung. He also discusses the type of synchronistic experience found in traditional Chinese philosophy and offers a synchronistic model of Jung's psychology of religion as a synthesis of both the intrapsychic and synchronistic models.

The Goddess Mother of the Trinity, by John P. Dourley. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 1990.

Jung's Quest for Wholeness: A Religious and Historical Perspective, by Curtis D. Smith. Albany: State U. of New York Press, 1990 + p (192pp.).

Jung and Christianity in Dialogue: Faith, Feminism, and Hermeneutics, edited by Robert L. Moore and Daniel Meckel. New York and Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1990p (265 + ix).

Liberating the Heart: Spirituality and Jungian Psychology, by Lawrence W. Jaffe. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1990p (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, 42) (175, incl. 5-p. index, 5-p. bibl.).

Jaffe seeks to convey Jung's healing message to those who have lost their sense of meaning in life. He pursues the central theme of individuation as an expression of the psychological dispensation in which each person is bound to God who is incarnating in each individual. This is in contrast to the Jewish dispensation (bound to a covenant) and to the Christian dispensation (bound as His child in God-man Christ). He illustrates his thoughts with material drawn from Jung's psychology, religion, literature, and his own experiences as a Jungian analyst. He discusses individuation; the reality of the psyche; the union of science and religion in Jung's psychology; Christ as model for individuation; the psychological law of compensation; the need for meaning in life; Jung and mechanistic science; Jewishness and individuation; the Sabbath; the feminine in the Godhead; and women and men in the psychological dispensation.

Seeing Through the Visible World: Jung, Gnosis, and Chaos, by June Singer. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1990 (230 + xxv, incl. 5-p. index, 4-p. bibl.).

Singer "touches the mysteries" of the invisible world and its apparent chaos by examining the frontiers of science, questions posed by images of the apocalypse and messianism, and the psychology of the unconscious. She also deals with the means of bringing knowledge of the invisible world to the world of contemporary problems from the perspective of individual experience.

Sufism and Jungian Psychology, by J. Marvin Spiegelman and Pir Vilayat Inayat Khan. Las Vegas: Falcon Press, 1990p.